Synthesis and recycling of tetrahydrobiopterin in endothelial function and vascular disease
ABSTRACT Nitric oxide, generated by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) enzymes, plays pivotal roles in cardiovascular homeostasis and in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The NOS cofactor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), is an important regulator of NOS function, since BH4 is required to maintain enzymatic coupling of L-arginine oxidation, to produce NO. Loss or oxidation of BH4 to 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2) is associated with NOS uncoupling, resulting in the production of superoxide rather than NO. In addition to key roles in folate metabolism, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) can 'recycle' BH2, and thus regenerate BH4. It is therefore likely that net BH4 cellular bioavailability reflects the balance between de novo BH4 synthesis, loss of BH4 by oxidation to BH2, and the regeneration of BH4 by DHFR. Recent studies have implicated BH4 recycling in the direct regulation of eNOS uncoupling, showing that inhibition of BH4 recycling using DHFR-specific siRNA and methotrexate treatment leads to eNOS uncoupling in endothelial cells and the hph-1 mouse model of BH4 deficiency, even in the absence of oxidative stress. These studies indicate that not only BH4 level, but the recycling pathways regulating BH4 bioavailability represent potential therapeutic targets and will be discussed in this review.
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ABSTRACT: Sepiapterin reductase (SPR) catalyzes the reduction of sepiapterin to dihydrobiopterin (BH2), the precursor for tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor critical for nitric oxide biosynthesis and alkylglycerol and aromatic amino acid metabolism. SPR also mediates chemical redox cycling, catalyzing one electron reduction of redox active chemicals including quinones and bipyridinium herbicides (e.g., menadione, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and diquat); rapid reaction of the reduced radicals with molecular oxygen generates reactive oxygen species (ROS). Using recombinant human SPR, sulfonamide and sulfonylurea based sulfa drugs were found to be potent non-competitive inhibitors of both sepiapterin reduction and redox cycling. The most potent inhibitors of sepiapterin reduction (IC50's = 31-180 nM) were sulfasalazine, sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole and chlorpropamide. Higher concentrations of the sulfa drugs (IC50's = 0.37-19.4 µM) were required to inhibit redox cycling, presumably due to distinct mechanisms of sepiapterin reduction and redox cycling. In PC12 cells, which generate catecholamine and monoamine neurotransmitters via BH4-dependent amino acid hydroxylases, sulfa drugs inhibited both BH2/BH4 biosynthesis and redox cycling mediated by SPR. Inhibition of BH2/BH4 resulted in decreased production of dopamine and dopamine metabolites, 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxytryptamine. Sulfathiazole (200 µM) markedly suppressed neurotransmitter production, an effect reversed by BH4. These data suggest that SPR and BH4-dependent enzymes, are 'off-targets' of sulfa drugs, which may underlie their untoward effects. The ability of the sulfa drugs to inhibit redox cycling may ameliorate ROS-mediated toxicity generated by redox active drugs and chemicals, contributing to their anti-inflammatory activity. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 12/2014; 352(3). DOI:10.1124/jpet.114.221572 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have highlighted the key roles of oxidative stress and inflammation in aging-related diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, age-relatedmacular degeneration (AMD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In aging cells, the natural antioxidant capacity decreases and the overall efficiency of reparative systems against cell damage becomes impaired. There is convincing data that stilbene compounds, a diverse group of natural defence phenolics, abundant in grapes, berries, and conifer bark waste, may confer a protective effect against aging-related diseases. This review highlights recent data helping to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in the stilbene-mediated protection against oxidative stress. The impact of stilbenes on the nuclear factor-erythroid-2- related factor-2 (Nrf2) mediated cellular defence against oxidative stress as well as the potential roles of SQSTM1/p62 protein in Nrf2/Keap1 signaling and autophagy will be summarized. The therapeutic potential of stilbene compounds against the most common aging-related diseases is discussed.Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 01/2015; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of severe falciparum malaria. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an enzyme cofactor required for NO synthesis from L-arginine. We hypothesized that systemic levels of BH4 would be decreased in children with cerebral malaria, contributing to low NO bioavailability. In an observational study in Tanzania, we measured urine levels of biopterin in its various redox states (fully reduced [BH4] and the oxidized metabolites, dihydrobiopterin [BH2] and biopterin [B0]) in children with uncomplicated malaria (UM, n = 55), cerebral malaria (CM, n = 45), non-malaria central nervous system conditions (NMC, n = 48), and in 111 healthy controls (HC). Median urine BH4 concentration in CM (1.10 [IQR:0.55-2.18] μmol/mmol creatinine) was significantly lower compared to each of the other three groups - UM (2.10 [IQR:1.32-3.14];p<0.001), NMC (1.52 [IQR:1.01-2.71];p = 0.002), and HC (1.60 [IQR:1.15-2.23];p = 0.005). Oxidized biopterins were increased, and the BH4:BH2 ratio markedly decreased in CM. In a multivariate logistic regression model, each Log10-unit decrease in urine BH4 was independently associated with a 3.85-fold (95% CI:1.89-7.61) increase in odds of CM (p<0.001). Low systemic BH4 levels and increased oxidized biopterins contribute to the low NO bioavailability observed in CM. Adjunctive therapy to regenerate BH4 may have a role in improving NO bioavailability and microvascular perfusion in severe falciparum malaria.PLoS Pathogens 03/2015; 11(3):e1004655. DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1004655 · 8.06 Impact Factor