Next-generation sequencing identifies mutations of SMPX, which encodes the small muscle protein, X-linked, as a cause of progressive hearing impairment.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Nijmegen, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
The American Journal of Human Genetics (Impact Factor: 11.2). 05/2011; 88(5):628-34. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.04.012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In a Dutch family with an X-linked postlingual progressive hearing impairment, a critical linkage interval was determined to span a region of 12.9 Mb flanked by the markers DXS7108 and DXS7110. This interval overlaps with the previously described DFNX4 locus and contains 75 annotated genes. Subsequent next-generation sequencing (NGS) detected one variant within the linkage interval, a nonsense mutation in SMPX. SMPX encodes the small muscle protein, X-linked (SMPX). Further screening was performed on 26 index patients from small families for which X-linked inheritance of nonsyndromic hearing impairment (NSHI) was not excluded. We detected a frameshift mutation in SMPX in one of the patients. Segregation analysis of both mutations in the families in whom they were found revealed that the mutations cosegregated with hearing impairment. Although we show that SMPX is expressed in many different organs, including the human inner ear, no obvious symptoms other than hearing impairment were observed in the patients. SMPX had previously been demonstrated to be specifically expressed in striated muscle and, therefore, seemed an unlikely candidate gene for hearing impairment. We hypothesize that SMPX functions in inner ear development and/or maintenance in the IGF-1 pathway, the integrin pathway through Rac1, or both.

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    ABSTRACT: Background Severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) requires cochlear implantation (CI) for auditory rehabilitation. Etiologic diagnoses can contribute to candidacy selection and decision-making regarding the timing of successful CI. However, few studies have been performed to address the etiologic spectrum of severe SNHL in the population where there is no consanguineous marriage and the majority of SNHL cases are sporadic in small sized families. The authors sought to comprehensively understand the etiologies of Korean cochlear implantees by incorporating the targeted resequencing of 204 candidate deafness genes (TRS-204) and a phenotype-driven candidate gene approach.Methods Ninety-three that consented to molecular genetic testing and underwent at least one molecular genetic test were included. Patients with a characteristic Phenotypic marker were subject to Sanger sequencing to detect variants in corresponding candidate genes. The rest of patients without any prominent phenotype were tested on GJB2. Next, TRS-204 was applied in GJB2-negative cases without any phenotypic marker. In addition, the sibling recurrence-risk of SNHL among families with non-diagnostic genotypes after TRS-204 was performed to gain insight of etiologies in non-diagnostic cases.ResultsOverall, we could find causative variants in 51 (54.8%) of the 93 cochlear implantees. Thirty (32.3%) probands could be diagnosed by direct Sanger sequencing of candidate genes selected by their phenotypes. GJB2 sequencing added 10 subjects to the group with a diagnostic genotype. TRS-204 could detect a causative variant from additional 11 cases (11.8%). We could not detect any pathogenic deletion or duplication on 204 target genes. The sibling recurrence-risk of SNHL among 42 genetically undiagnosed families with 0.03 (1/38) was significantly lower than among genetically diagnosed recessive families with 0.19 (7/37).Conclusion Despite that the majority of severe or more degree of SNHL occurs sporadically in Koreans, at least 54.8% of such cases that were willing to join the genetic study in the Korean population are monogenic Mendelian disorders with convincing causative variants. This study also indicates that a substantial portion of unsolved cases after applying our current protocol are predicted to have non-genetic or complex etiology rather than a Mendelian genetic disorder involving new genes beyond the 204 target genes.
    Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 11/2014; 9(1):167. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mechanical factors such as stretch are thought to be important in the regulation of muscle phenotype. Small muscle protein X-linked (SMPX) is upregulated by stretch in skeletal muscle and has been suggested to serve both as a transcription factor and a mechanosensor, possibly giving rise to changes in both fiber size and fiber type. We have used in vivo confocal imaging to study the subcellular localization of SMPX in skeletal muscle fibers of adult rats using a SMPX-EGFP fusion protein. The fusion protein was localized predominantly in repetitive double stripes flanking the Z-disc, and was excluded from all nuclei. This localization would be consistent with SMPX being a mechanoreceptor, but not with SMPX playing a role as a transcription factor. In vivo overexpression of ectopic SMPX in skeletal muscle of adult mice gave no significant changes in fiber type distribution or cross sectional area, thus a role of SMPX in regulating muscle phenotype remains unclear.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99232. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Postlingual progressive hearing loss, affecting primarily the high frequencies, is the clinical finding in most cases of autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL). The molecular genetic etiology of ADNSHL is extremely heterogeneous. We applied whole-exome sequencing to reveal the genetic etiology of high-frequency hearing loss in a mid-sized Korean family without any prior linkage data. Whole-exome sequencing of four family members (two affected and two unaffected), together with our filtering strategy based on comprehensive bioinformatics analyses, identified 21 potential pathogenic candidates. Sanger validation of an additional five family members excluded 20 variants, leaving only one novel variant, TECTA c.710C>T (p.T237I), as the strongest candidate. This variant resides in the entactin (ENT) domain and co-segregated perfectly with non-progressive high-frequency hearing loss in the family. It was absent among 700 ethnically matched control chromosomes, and the T237 residue is conserved among species, which supports its pathogenicity. Interestingly, this finding contrasted with a previously proposed genotype-phenotype correlation in which variants of the ENT domain of TECTA were associated with mid-frequency hearing loss. Based upon what we observed, we propose a novel "genotype to phenotype" correlation in the ENT domain of TECTA. Our results shed light on another important application of whole-exome sequencing: the establishment of a novel genotype-phenotype in the molecular genetic diagnosis of autosomal dominant hearing loss.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e97040. · 3.53 Impact Factor

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