A Prospective Study of Diabetes, Lifestyle Factors, and Glaucoma Among African-American Women

Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University, MA 02215, USA.
Annals of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 2). 06/2011; 21(6):430-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2011.03.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate the association of self-reported type 2 diabetes, anthropometric factors, alcohol consumption, and cigarette smoking with risk of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in a prospective cohort study of African-American women.
From 1995 through 2007, 32,570 Black Women's Health Study participants aged 21 to 69 years at baseline were followed for incident POAG. Questionnaires were mailed biennially to update exposures and identify incident cases of POAG. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from Cox regression models.
During 416,171 person-years of follow-up, 366 incident POAG cases were confirmed by physician report. After adjustment for potential confounders, the IRR comparing women with and without type 2 diabetes was 1.58 (95% CI, 1.17-2.13), and the IRR comparing current with never alcohol consumers was 1.35 (95% CI, 1.05-1.73). Among women younger than 50, associations with diabetes and alcohol consumption were stronger, and POAG was significantly associated with body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and both long-duration and high-intensity current smoking.
These results suggest that type 2 diabetes and current alcohol consumption are independent risk factors for POAG among African-American women, and that in addition to those factors, overall and central adiposity and smoking may be associated with increased risk of early-onset POAG.

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Available from: Johanna Seddon, Mar 22, 2015
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    • "There are limited data of these studies in the Chinese population. Recently in a cohort of African-American women, Wise L. A. et al. reported that smoking might be associated with increased risk of early-onset POAG [14]. Kang, J. H. et al. also reported cigarette smoking conferring risk to POAG [15]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background To date, studies on the role played by cigarette smoking in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) remains controversial. The current study evaluated cigarette smoking as a risk factor of POAG and its relationships with vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR), central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a Chinese cohort. Methods In a total of 248 unrelated individuals including 30 juvenile-onset POAG (JOAG), 92 adult-onset POAG (AOAG) and 126 sex-matched senile cataract controls, underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Their smoking was obtained and documented by questionnaire. Association of cigarette smoking with POAG was performed using logistic regression controlled for age and sex. Effects of cigarette smoking on VCDR, IOP and CCT were analyzed with multiple linear regression. Results In either JOAG or AOAG, no association of cigarette smoking was found with disease onset (P = 0.692 and 0.925 respectively). In controls and JOAG, no significant effects of smoking were found on VCDR, IOP or CCT (all P > 0.05). Smoking was found to be correlated with decreased CCT in AOAG and combined POAG (JOAG + AOAG) (P = 0.009 and 0.003), but no association with VCDR or IOP was observed (P > 0.05). Conclusions Although cigarette smoking was not found to be risk factor for onset of POAG, it was correlated with CCT in AOAG, and thus might still play a role in the disease course, especially for AOAG.
    BMC Ophthalmology 11/2012; 12(1):59. DOI:10.1186/1471-2415-12-59 · 1.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many epidemiologic studies have evaluated the association between caffeine and fertility, with inconsistent results. Some studies suggest that various caffeine-containing beverages may affect fertility differently. We evaluated the relation of caffeine, coffee, tea, and sodas with time to pregnancy in a prospective cohort study of 3628 women planning a pregnancy, in Denmark (2007-2010). Women reported beverage intake at baseline and every 8 weeks during follow-up until they became pregnant or for up to 12 cycles. We used discrete-time Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), controlling for potential confounders. There was little relation between fecundability and caffeine intake of 300+ mg/day compared with < 100 mg/day (FR = 1.04 [95% CI = 0.90-1.21]) or coffee intake of 3+ servings/day compared with none (1.05 [0.85-1.33]). Soda consumption was associated with reduced fecundability: for all types of sodas combined, the adjusted FRs were 0.89 (0.80-0.98), 0.85 (0.71-1.02), 0.84 (0.57-1.25), and 0.48 (0.21-1.13) for < 1, 1, 2, and 3+ servings per day, respectively, compared with none. Tea drinking was associated with a slight increase in fecundability, with FR = 1.27 (0.98-1.64) for 2+ servings/day versus none. In this prospective study of time to pregnancy, the association between caffeine intake and fertility differed by beverage type. Although we controlled for many confounders, our findings of reduced fecundability among soda drinkers and increased fecundability among tea drinkers could have resulted from confounding by unmeasured lifestyle characteristics.
    Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) 03/2012; 23(3):393-401. DOI:10.1097/EDE.0b013e31824cbaac · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To study the prevalence and systemic control and evaluate the adequacy of therapy of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) in glaucoma patients visiting a tertiary care eye facility at a university hospital. Consecutive cases with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) attending the outpatient services were evaluated for the presence of DM and HT and any systemic/ocular medications being taken were recorded. Of 615 glaucoma cases evaluated, 281 (45.7 %) were POAG and 334 (54.3 %) were PACG. The mean age was 58.19 ± 10.8 years with males comprising 60.5 % of the study group. Two hundred and ninety-two (47.5 %) glaucoma patients had HT and 181 (29.4 %) had DM, including 97 (15.8 %) patients who had both. One hundred and thirty-three (47.3 %) patients with POAG and 159 (47.6 %) patients with PACG had HT. Ninety-seven (34.5 %) POAG patients and 84 (25.1 %) PACG patients were diabetics. One hundred and sixty-one (55.1 %) HT patients had blood pressure above control levels and 88 (48.6 %) diabetics had uncontrolled blood sugars. Twenty-eight (9.6 %) patients with HT were found to be taking combined systemic and topical β-blocker therapy. A large majority of adult glaucoma patients had concurrent systemic disease, which was not adequately controlled. Patients were using systemic medications with known interactions with ocular hypotensive medications. This study highlights the unmet need for better coordination between ophthalmologists and physicians to improve the overall health of glaucoma patients.
    International Ophthalmology 02/2013; 33(5). DOI:10.1007/s10792-013-9737-3 · 0.55 Impact Factor
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