Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome in two female siblings: a case report and discussion on approach and management.
ABSTRACT Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome (DCS) is a very rare disorder of lipid metabolism that exhibits an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Besides ichthyosis, systemic manifestations may be present. We report two female siblings with DCS who presented with non-bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma (NBIE). A peripheral blood smear demonstrated Jordan anomaly. This case emphasizes the need for peripheral blood smear screening in patients with congenital ichthyosis. CASE REPORT: A 2½-year-old female child and her 1-month-old sibling presented with generalized erythema and scaling, which was suggestive of NBIE. Hepatomegaly and ectropion were seen in the older sibling. A peripheral blood smear of both the patients revealed Jordan anomaly. Serum biochemistry revealed abnormal liver function tests, abnormal lipid profile, and elevated muscle-derived enzymes. A diagnosis of Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome was made in both the siblings. Screening for Jordan anomaly in the family members including the parents and maternal and paternal grandmothers was negative. CONCLUSION: The peculiarities in our case include the presence of this disorder in both female siblings along with alopecia in the younger sibling. Hyperlipidemia, noted in one of our cases, is also not a common association. Diagnosing DCS is fairly simple and a high index of suspicion may lead to higher rates of detection of this rare disorder.
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ABSTRACT: Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive inherited lipid storage disease with congenital ichthyotic erythroderma due to an acylglycerol recycling defect. Demonstration of lipid vacuoles in neutrophils from peripheral blood smears (Jordans' anomaly) in patients with ichthyotic erythroderma leads to the diagnosis. In spite of frequent liver, muscle, ear, eye and central nervous system involvement, Dorfman-Chanarin syndrome may present clinically as monosymptomatic ichthyosis. Here, we report clinical and laboratory investigations in a consanguineous family from Turkey with 3 affected family members, and demonstrate the lipid vacuoles in epidermal Langerhans' cells for the first time. Langerhans' cell phenotyping suggests that the skin inflammation is due to the gene defect and not to underlying atopic dermatitis. Microscopic examination of eosinophils for lipid vacuoles to identify conductors revealed variable percentages of normal and vacuolized eosinophils in conductors, suggesting the microscopic analysis of at least 10 eosinophils for conductor identification.Acta Dermato Venereologica 80(1):39-43. · 3.49 Impact Factor