Non-Polar Lipid Components of Human Cerumen

Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry AS CR, v.v.i., Flemingovo náměstí 2, 16610, Prague 6, Czech Republic.
Lipids (Impact Factor: 2.35). 05/2011; 46(8):781-8. DOI: 10.1007/s11745-011-3564-y
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Human cerumen was separated by column chromatography into the following groups of compounds: hydrocarbons, squalene, wax esters and cholesterol esters, triacylglycerols, free fatty acids, free fatty alcohols, monoacylglycerols, free cholesterol, free sterols, and free hydroxy acids. The groups of compounds obtained were examined in detail by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In total, about one thousand compounds have been identified.

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    ABSTRACT: Earwax impaction is a common ear disorder with presentation worldwide. This study aimed at determining the clinical presentation, patients' perception of earwax, and its predisposing factors among Nigerians. This prospective study was conducted on consented patients with diagnosis of earwax impaction at the Ear, Nose, and Throat Clinic of the University Teaching Hospital, Ado Ekiti, Ekiti state, south west, Nigeria. The research was carried out over a period of one year (April 2008 and March 2009). All consented patients were told about the aim and scope of the study and their biodata were taken. Detailed history of the presenting complaints and otological complaints were taken and all data entered into structured questionnaires. Full-ear examination and otoscopy were performed and our findings were documented. From all these exercise, data obtained were collated and statistically analyzed. A total of 437 patients were diagnosed with earwax impaction and prevalence of 20.1% was found. There was 52.2% male preponderance with male to female ratio of 1:1. Bimodal peak age distribution of patients was found at the extreme ages of life. Most common sources of our patients referrals were 39.6% general medical practitioners with least from 6.2% self-reporting. Common presentations were 277 (63.3%) hearing loss, 268 (61.3%) earache (otalgia), and 234 (53.5%) tiinitus. Unilateral earwax impaction, 75.1% was more common than bilateral earwax impaction. Right ear was more affected than left ear. Recurrent earwax impaction of 66.1% was found in our study. About 382 (87.4%) believed earwax was due to dirt or dust. Most common predisposing factors among our patients were self-ear cleaning. Common predisposing factor of this high recurrent earwax impaction were wrong perception and preventable self-ear cleaning with indiscriminate objects including cotton tip swab. This condition could be reduced by health education of the community.
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    ABSTRACT: We report here the initial examination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from human earwax (cerumen). Recent studies link a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette, sub-family C, member 11 gene (ABCC11) to the production of different types of axillary odorants and cerumen. ABCC11 encodes an ATP-driven efflux pump protein that plays an important function in ceruminous apocrine glands of the auditory canal and the secretion of axillary odor precursors. The type of cerumen and underarm odor produced by East Asians differ markedly from that produced by non-Asians. In this initial report we find that both groups emit many of the same VOCs but differ significantly in the amounts produced. The principal odorants are volatile organic C2-to-C6 acids. The physical appearance of cerumen from the two groups also matches previously reported ethnic differences, viz., cerumen from East Asians appears dry and white while that from non-Asians is typically wet and yellowish-brown.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 02/2014; 953-954C:48-52. DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2014.01.043 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background An in-vitro setup was established in order to determine a) the diffusion activities of eight otic preparations (Aurizon®, Eas Otic®, Epi Otic®, Otifree®, Otomax®, Panolog®, Posatex®, Surolan®) through synthetic cerumen, and b) the ceruminolytic capacity and impregnation effects of these products. The main lipid classes of canine cerumen produced with moderate, non-purulent otitis externa were determined by thin layer chromatography and were subsequently used to produce a standardised synthetic cerumen (SCC). SCC was filled into capillary tubes, all of which were loaded with six commercially available multipurpose otic medications and two ear cleaners, each mixed with two markers in two experimental setups. These two marker compounds (Oil red O and marbofloxacin) were chosen, since they exhibit different physicochemical drug characteristics by which it is possible to determine and verify the diffusion activity of different types of liquids (i.e. the otic preparations). A synthetic cerumen described in the literature (JSL) was also used for comparison as its lipid composition was different to SCC. The diffusion activities of the otic preparations through both types of synthetic cerumen were studied over 24 hours. A second in-vitro experiment determined both the ceruminolytic activity and impregnation effect of the otic preparations by comparing the weight loss or weight gain after repeated incubation of JSL. Results Canine cerumen is mainly composed of triglycerides, sterol esters, fatty acid esters and squalene. The diffusion experiments showed a high diffusion efficacy along with a high impregnation effect for one test product. All the other products exhibited a lower diffusion activity with a mild to moderate impregnation effect. A mild ceruminolytic activity was observed for the two ear cleaners but not for any of the otic medications. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that there are significant differences in the diffusion characteristics and ceruminolytic properties of the eight tested otic preparations.
    BMC Veterinary Research 04/2013; 9(1):70. DOI:10.1186/1746-6148-9-70 · 1.74 Impact Factor


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