Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the clock drawing test in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease: evaluation of a modified scoring system.

Department of Psychology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.
Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology (Impact Factor: 1.63). 06/2011; 24(2):108-18. DOI: 10.1177/0891988711402349
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The clock drawing test (CDT) has been used as a screening tool for identifying cognitive decline in individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) and other dementias but has not been extensively evaluated for categorizing individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This study used both an established quantitative scoring system and a revised scoring method based on qualitative error criteria developed by Rouleau et al to demonstrate the sensitivity of the CDT to MCI. Participants were 66 cognitively healthy older adult, 33 individuals with MCI, and 33 individuals with AD. Sensitivity analyses of the 2 clock drawing methods revealed that the Modified Rouleau scoring method was more sensitive to MCI than the original Rouleau scoring system. Conceptual, graphic, and spatial-planning difficulties were the most commonly committed errors on the CDT across all groups, and conceptual errors along with graphic difficulties were committed more often in the MCI group than the cognitively healthy control group. Participants in the AD group exhibited greater deficits in all error categories and significantly lower total CDT scores compared to both the MCI and older adult controls. Findings observed in this study suggest that qualitative observations of clock drawing errors can help increase sensitivity of the CDT to MCI and that use of a more detailed scoring system is necessary to differentiate individuals with MCI from cognitively healthy older adults.

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    ABSTRACT: The use of brief cognitive screening instruments is essential in the assessment of dementia. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of use and perceived characteristics of cognitive screening instruments among Canadian psychogeriatric clinicians. Members of the Canadian Academy of Geriatric Psychiatry (CAGP) and attendees to the 2010 Annual Scientific Meeting were asked to complete a computerized survey. This survey assessed the perceived characteristics and frequency of use of 14 instruments. The survey had a 55% response rate, with a total of 155 respondents. The most commonly used instruments are the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), and Delayed Word Recall. Effectiveness, ease of administration, and speed of administration were the perceived characteristics of instruments most correlated with frequency of use. Consistent with previous surveys, a small number of cognitive screening instruments are used by the majority of clinicians. Use of the CDT and the MMSE were comparable. To our knowledge, this is the first survey demonstrating that the MMSE is not the most commonly used tool, and other, newer instruments like the MoCA, are gaining prominence.
    06/2013; 16(2):54-60. DOI:10.5770/cgj.16.81
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The clock drawing test (CDT) is a widely used cognitive screening tool that has been well accepted among clinicians and patients for its ease of use and short administration time. Although there is ample interest in the CDT as a screening instrument, there remains a range of CDT administration and scoring systems with no consensus on which system produces the most valid results while remaining user friendly. The aims of this review are to synthesize the available evidence on CDT scoring systems' effectiveness and to recommend which system is best suited for use at the clinical frontlines. DesignA Pubmed literature search was carried out from 2000 to 2013 including manual cross-referencing of bibliographies in order to capture studies published after Shulman's comprehensive review published in 2000. A brief summary of all original scoring systems is included, as well as a review of relevant comparative studies. ResultsThe consensus from multiple comparison studies suggests that increasing the complexity of CDT scoring systems does little to enhance the test's ability to identify significant cognitive impairment. Moreover, increased complexity in scoring adds to the administration time, thereby reducing the test's utility in clinical settings. Conclusions In comparing scoring systems, no system emerged as consistently superior in terms of predictive validity. The authors conclude that when scoring the CDT as a screening instrument in a primary/general medicine/community setting, simpler is better, and perhaps qualitative assessment of normal versus abnormal may be sufficient for screening purposes and the establishment of a baseline for follow-up. Copyright (c) 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 02/2014; 29(2). DOI:10.1002/gps.3992 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of a qualitative scale for the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) may add information about the pattern of errors committed. Objective: To translate and adapt the Modified Qualitative Error Analysis of Rouleau into Brazilian Portuguese and to examine the pattern of errors according to educational level and cognitive profile. Method: 180 adults (47-82 years) completed the CDT. Participants were stratified into age and educational levels and separated between those with and without changes in cognitive screening tests (Mini-Mental State Examination, Verbal Fluency). Results: No significant differences were found in CDT scores among age groups. Among participants without cognitive impairment, those with lower education often presented graphic difficulties, conceptual deficits and spatial deficits. Participants with cognitive deficits, demonstrated more frequently conceptual and spatial errors. Conclusion: The qualitative analysis of the CDT may contribute to the identification of cognitive changes. Education level has to be taken into consideration during the analysis.
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