Atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect (VSD), and atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) are among the most common congenital heart lesions, with most children surviving to adulthood. However, the clinical course of these patients is largely unknown, particularly pertaining to inpatient care. The purpose of this study was to assess hospitalizations for septal defects in adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) and risk factors associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The 2007 Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to assess national prevalence of hospitalizations in adults with CHD with septal defects. Co-morbidities and risk factors for mortality were also determined. There were 84,308 adult CHD admissions in the United States in 2007. Fifty-four percent of adult CHD admissions had diagnoses of septal defects, with 48% having atrial septal defect, 7% having VSD, and 0.4% having AVSD. Overall in-hospital mortality was 2.1%. Common co-morbidities included arrhythmias (31%), heart failure (20%), and diabetes mellitus (18%). On multivariable analysis, independent risk factors for mortality included presence of VSD (odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5 to 6.5), trisomy 21 (odds ratio 2.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 7.5), and pulmonary hypertension (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.4). In conclusion, this study of hospitalizations in adults with septal defects found that admissions are common and associated with significant co-morbidities. Overall mortality is low but is increased in patients with VSD. Cardiac and noncardiac co-morbidities are commonly encountered. Many noncardiac conditions, including trisomy 21 and the youngest and oldest groups, are associated with an increased risk of death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The demography of congenital heart disease is changing. Largely as a consequence of successful cardiac surgery in childhood, there are an increasing number of adults with congenital heart disease with a prevalence of more than four per 100 adults. The type of disease in adults is also changing with an increasing number of survivors with complex disease. These patients have a significantly increased healthcare requirement in comparison to healthy adults and this includes noncardiac, multisystem morbidity. The adult congenital heart disease population are now developing problems associated with aging and there is a new population of geriatrics with congenital heart disease. As survival continues to improve, increased healthcare resources need to be directed towards the management of the adult with congenital heart disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the risk factors for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in school-age children after full flow open-heart surgery for congenital heart disease.
The outcome was assessed in 117 children without a genetic comorbidity at a mean age of 10.4 ± 2.5 years. Intelligence was assessed using the Raven's Progressive Matrices and neuromotor function using the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment. Risk factors were retrieved from detailed chart review.
The mean intelligence score was 89 ± 16, significantly lower than the norm (P < .001). Cerebral palsy was diagnosed in 10% of patients. Poor neuromotor performance (less than p10) was present in 15% to 20% of the children, depending on the motor task (all P < .001). Pure motor and static balance performance was also significantly impaired when patients with cerebral palsy were excluded (P < .01). Intelligence was only related to socioeconomic status (P = .006), and neuromotor outcome was related to the length of hospital stay and postoperative neurologic abnormalities (P < .03). The extracorporeal circulation time was related to adaptive fine motor performance (P = .05). All other variables were not related to outcome.
Children without a genetic comorbidity are at risk of long-term intellectual and motor impairments also after full-flow cardiac repair. Surgery-related parameters play a less important role for adverse outcomes than postoperative complications. Our findings stress the importance of specialized follow-up assessments for all children with CHD undergoing open heart surgery.
The Journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery 03/2012; 144(3):577-83. DOI:10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.02.005 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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