Impact of type 1 diabetes and body weight status on cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent children.
ABSTRACT Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, it is unclear whether increased body weight amplifies that risk in T1D patients. This is a cross-sectional study examining the presence of cardiovascular risk factors in normal and overweight children, both with and without T1D. Sixty-six children (aged 16±2.2 years) were included in one of the following groups: (T1D and normal weight, T1D and overweight, healthy and normal weight, and healthy and overweight). A fasting blood sample was analyzed for lipid profile (triglyceride, cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) levels. Body composition was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and vascular elasticity by HDI/Pulsewave CR-2000 (Hypertension Diagnostics, Eagan, MN). Statistical analyses examined the effect of T1D and body weight status and their interactions on cardiovascular risk parameters. In this study, the authors were unable to demonstrate an additive effect of body weight status and T1D on cardiovascular risk profile. However, subgroup analysis of patients with T1D revealed higher apoC-III levels in overweight patients with T1D (P=.0453) compared with normal-weight diabetic children. Most notably, there was a direct relationship of small artery elasticity to body weight status. This seemingly paradoxical observation supports recent data and warrants further investigation.