Effects of long-term supplementation of dairy cow diets with rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on performance, metabolic parameters and fatty acid profile in milk fat.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Braunschweig, Germany.
Archives of animal nutrition (Impact Factor: 0.89). 04/2011; 65(2):89-107. DOI: 10.1080/1745039X.2011.552275
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to the rations of dairy cows represents an opportunity to reduce the content of milk fat. Therefore, CLA have the potential beneficial effect of reducing energy requirements of the early lactating cow. The present study aimed at the examination of long-term and posttreatment effects of dietary CLA intake on performance, variables of energy metabolism-like plasma levels of non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and fatty acid profile in milk fat. Forty-six pregnant German Holstein cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: (1) 100 g/ d of control fat supplement (CON), (2) 50 g/d of control fat supplement and 50 g/ d of CLA supplement (CLA-1) and (3) 100 g/d of CLA supplement (CLA-2). The lipid-encapsulated CLA supplement consisted of approximately 10% of trans-10, cis-12 CLA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA each. The experiment started 1 d after calving and continued for about 38 weeks, divided into a supplementation (26 weeks) and a depletion period (12 weeks). Over the first 7 weeks of treatment, 11 and 16% reductions in dry matter intake compared to control were observed for the cows fed CLA-1 and CLA-2 supplements respectively. Consequently, the calculated energy balance for these two CLA groups was lower compared to the control. Plasma levels of NEFA and BHB remained unaffected. Later in lactation the highest CLA supplementation resulted in a reduction of milk fat content of 0.7%. However, no reduction in milk fat yield, and accordingly no milk fat depression (MFD), could be shown. The trans-10, cis-12 CLA in milk fat increased with increasing dietary CLA supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. The proportion of C16 in milk fat was decreased by the highest CLA supplementation. With the exception of an increase in plasma glucose level in the CLA-2 group, no post-treatment effects were observed. Overall, under the conditions of the present study no improvement in the calculated energy balance by CLA supplementation could be shown for the entire evaluation period.

1 Bookmark
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study aimed to investigate the influence of maternal conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation and various concentrate proportions in diets during late pregnancy on blood metabolites of unsuckled compared to suckled calves to examine possible CLA effects on calf metabolism. Pregnant German Holstein cows had ad libitum access to silage-based rations three weeks prior to calving. Cows received 100 g/d control fat (CON) or CLA supplement, either in a low (20%; CON-20, CLA-20) or high (60%; CON-60, CLA-60) concentrate diet. In total 5 to 6 calves were used out of potentially available calves per group to carry out the study. Blood samples were obtained from unsuckled calves immediately after parturition and from the same calves after staying 16 to 24 h with their dam. Calves had ad libitum access to colostrum in this time. Antepartum dry matter intake of dams of group CLA-60 was highest, whereas birth weight of calves remained unaffected. Nearly all blood metabolites were increased in suckled calves compared to unsuckled calves due to colostrum intake, whereas concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids decreased slightly and serum albumin showed similar concentrations after colostrum intake. However, no significant maternal diet effect and no effect by intake of CLA enriched colostrum could be observed. Results indicate that CLA supplementation and various concentrate levels in dairy cow diets during the final weeks of pregnancy did not affect the metabolic status of the offspring.
    Livestock Science 03/2014; · 1.10 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a lipid-encapsulated CLA preparation on rumen metabolism and the actual post-ruminal bioavailability of the applied CLA isomers. In the rumen, the CLA supplementation modified the molar proportions of VFA. In period CLA-1 the rumen fermentation shifted toward more butyric acid at the expense of acetic acid. The highest CLA supplementation resulted in increased amounts of isobutyric, isovaleric, and valeric acid. The apparent ruminal digestibility of starch increased in period CLA-2. The ruminal protein degradation was higher after CLA supplementation, while the efficiency of the use of the RDP for microbial protein synthesis declined. The duodenal flow of trans-10,cis-12 CLA amounted to 16 and 5% of the intake in periods CLA-1 and CLA-2, respectively. The transfer of trans-10,cis-12 CLA from duodenum into milk was 36 and 48% in periods CLA-1 and CLA-2, respectively. Overall, the observed effects of the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated CLA on the parameters of rumen metabolism were negligible. The actual low post-ruminal bioavailability of trans-10,cis-12 CLA suggest that most of the applied fat supplement was biohydrogenated.
    European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 12/2011; 113(12). · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The free fatty acid receptor (FFA) 1, FFA2, FFA3 and hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptor (HCA)2 are G protein-coupled receptors, acting as energy and metabolic sensors. Herein, we characterized the tissue-specific mRNA abundance of genes encoding for these receptors at different stages of lactation. In addition, potential effects of supplementation with or without conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) were tested. Tissues from pluriparous cows (subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and liver) and from primiparous cows (3 SAT locations, 3 visceral adipose tissues (VAT), liver, mammary gland and skeletal muscle) were used from 2 separate trials. In primiparous cows the mRNA abundance of all receptors (FFA3 was not detectable by the applied protocol in muscle and udder) was lowest in muscle (P < 0.05). With exception of FFA1, gene expression of the investigated receptors was higher in AT than in the non-AT. Expression of FFA1 in liver (P < 0.03), of FFAR2 in SAT (P < 0.01) and HCA2 in SAT (P < 0.01) from pluriparous cows changed during the observation period (days -21 to d 252 relative to parturition). The correlation between mRNA abundance of HCA2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARG) and likewise PPARG2 (P < 0.01) in SAT indicates a link between HCA2 and PPARG. Differences in receptor mRNA abundance between the CLA-fed and the control animals were scarce and limited to HCA2 and FFA1 in 1 and 2 time points, respectively (less hepatic HCA2 mRNA in CLA-fed pluriparous cows, and greater FFA1 mRNA abundance in 2 VAT depots in CLA-treated primiparous cows). In view of the metabolic changes occurring during the different phases of lactation, in particular the altered concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) acting as receptor ligands, the longitudinal, tissue-specific characterization provided herein allows for a first insight into the regulation of these receptors at the gene expression level.
    Domestic Animal Endocrinology 02/2014; · 1.78 Impact Factor


Available from
May 20, 2014

Ronny Kramer