Article

Effects of long-term supplementation of dairy cow diets with rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on performance, metabolic parameters and fatty acid profile in milk fat.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Braunschweig, Germany.
Archives of animal nutrition (Impact Factor: 0.89). 04/2011; 65(2):89-107. DOI: 10.1080/1745039X.2011.552275
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to the rations of dairy cows represents an opportunity to reduce the content of milk fat. Therefore, CLA have the potential beneficial effect of reducing energy requirements of the early lactating cow. The present study aimed at the examination of long-term and posttreatment effects of dietary CLA intake on performance, variables of energy metabolism-like plasma levels of non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and fatty acid profile in milk fat. Forty-six pregnant German Holstein cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: (1) 100 g/ d of control fat supplement (CON), (2) 50 g/d of control fat supplement and 50 g/ d of CLA supplement (CLA-1) and (3) 100 g/d of CLA supplement (CLA-2). The lipid-encapsulated CLA supplement consisted of approximately 10% of trans-10, cis-12 CLA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA each. The experiment started 1 d after calving and continued for about 38 weeks, divided into a supplementation (26 weeks) and a depletion period (12 weeks). Over the first 7 weeks of treatment, 11 and 16% reductions in dry matter intake compared to control were observed for the cows fed CLA-1 and CLA-2 supplements respectively. Consequently, the calculated energy balance for these two CLA groups was lower compared to the control. Plasma levels of NEFA and BHB remained unaffected. Later in lactation the highest CLA supplementation resulted in a reduction of milk fat content of 0.7%. However, no reduction in milk fat yield, and accordingly no milk fat depression (MFD), could be shown. The trans-10, cis-12 CLA in milk fat increased with increasing dietary CLA supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. The proportion of C16 in milk fat was decreased by the highest CLA supplementation. With the exception of an increase in plasma glucose level in the CLA-2 group, no post-treatment effects were observed. Overall, under the conditions of the present study no improvement in the calculated energy balance by CLA supplementation could be shown for the entire evaluation period.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Gerhard Jahreis, Jun 21, 2015
2 Followers
 · 
148 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Decreasing insulin sensitivity (IS) in peripheral tissues allows for partitioning nutrients towards the mammary gland. In dairy cows, extensive lipid mobilization and continued insulin resistance (IR) are typical for early lactation. Adiponectin, an adipokine, promotes IS. Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) in rodents and humans reduces fat mass whereby IR and hyperinsulinemia may occur. In dairy cows, CLA reduce milk fat, whereas body fat, serum free fatty acids and leptin are not affected. We aimed to investigate the effects of CLA supplementation on serum and adipose tissue (AT) adiponectin concentrations in dairy cows during the lactation driven and parity modulated changes of metabolism. High yielding cows (n=33) were allocated on day 1 post partum to either 100 g/day of a CLA mixture or a control fat supplement (CON) until day 182 post partum. Blood and subcutaneous (sc) AT (AT) biopsy samples were collected until day 252 post partum to measure adiponectin. Serum adiponectin decreased from day 21 pre partum reaching a nadir at calving and thereafter increased gradually. The distribution of adiponectin molecular weight forms was neither affected by time, parity nor treatment. Cows receiving CLA had decreased serum adiponectin concentrations whereby primiparous cows responded about 4 weeks earlier than multiparous cows. The time course of adiponectin concentrations in sc AT (corrected for residual blood) was similar to serum concentrations, without differences between CLA and CON. CLA supplementation attenuated the post partum increase of circulating adiponectin thus acting towards prolongation of peripartal IR and drain of nutrients towards the mammary gland.
    General and Comparative Endocrinology 03/2014; 198:13-21. DOI:10.1016/j.ygcen.2013.12.008 · 2.67 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation causes milk fat depression in dairy cows, but CLA effects on glucose metabolism are not clear. The objective of the study was to investigate glucose metabolism, especially endogenous glucose production (eGP) and glucose oxidation (GOx), as well as hepatic genes involved in endogenous glucose production in Holstein cows supplemented either with 50 g of rumen-protected CLA (9%trans-10,cis-12 and 10%cis-9,trans-11; CLA; n = 10) or 50 g of control fat (24% C18:2; Ctrl; n = 10) from wk 2 before parturition to wk 9 of lactation. Animal performance data were recorded and blood metabolites and hormones were taken weekly from 2 wk before to 12 wk after parturition. During wk 3 and 9 after parturition, glucose tolerance tests were performed and eGP and GOx were measured by [U-(13)C] glucose infusion. Liver biopsies were taken at the same time to measure total fat and glycogen concentrations and gene expression of pyruvate carboxylase, cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and carnitine palmitoyl-transferase 1. Conjugated linoleic acid feeding reduced milk fat, but increased milk lactose output; milk yield was higher starting 5 wk after parturition in CLA-fed cows than in Ctrl-fed cows. Energy balance was more negative during CLA supplementation, and plasma concentrations of glucose were higher immediately after calving in CLA-fed cows. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation did not affect insulin release during glucose tolerance tests, but reduced eGP in wk 3, and eGP and GOx increased with time after parturition. Hepatic gene expression of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase tended to be lower in CLA-fed cows than in Ctrl-fed cows. In spite of lower eGP in CLA-fed cows, lactose output and plasma glucose concentrations were greater in CLA-fed cows than in Ctrl-fed cows. This suggests a CLA-related glucose sparing effect most likely due to lower glucose utilization for milk fat synthesis and probably because of a more efficient whole-body energy utilization in CLA-fed cows.
    Journal of Dairy Science 01/2013; 96(4). DOI:10.3168/jds.2012-6127 · 2.55 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipose tissue-derived glycoprotein circulating as highly abundant multimers. It regulates glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity. In ruminants, valid data about serum concentrations and tissue-specific protein expression are lacking, and we, therefore, aimed to generate a polyclonal antibody against bovine adiponectin to apply it in immunodetection. The specificity of the purified anti-adiponectin antibody was established by Western blot analysis with the use of reducing and denaturing conditions applied to both the purified protein and the bovine serum samples. Besides bovine serum, the applicability of the antibody for immunodetection of adiponectin was confirmed for the supernatant fluid of in vitro-differentiated bovine adipocytes, for protein extracts from bovine adipose tissue, and also in a multispecies comparison: bands comparable in size with monomeric bovine adiponectin were obtained under denaturing conditions in serum of camel, horse, human, mouse, pig, roe deer, and sheep. In addition, when used in immunohistochemistry on bovine adipose tissue sections, a characteristic adipocyte-specific staining pattern was obtained with this antibody. The antibody was used for establishing a semiquantitative Western blot procedure and the development of an ELISA. Both methods were extensively validated and were first applied to characterize the serum adiponectin concentrations in multiparous dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation, that is, 3 wk before until 5 wk after calving. With both assays a time effect (P = 0.017, P = 0.026, respectively) with lowest values at the day of parturition was observed. We thus established 2 useful tools to validly assess bovine adiponectin at the protein level.
    Domestic animal endocrinology 11/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.domaniend.2012.10.004 · 1.78 Impact Factor