Effects of long-term supplementation of dairy cow diets with rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on performance, metabolic parameters and fatty acid profile in milk fat.

Institute of Animal Nutrition, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Braunschweig, Germany.
Archives of animal nutrition (Impact Factor: 0.89). 04/2011; 65(2):89-107. DOI: 10.1080/1745039X.2011.552275
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The supplementation of conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) to the rations of dairy cows represents an opportunity to reduce the content of milk fat. Therefore, CLA have the potential beneficial effect of reducing energy requirements of the early lactating cow. The present study aimed at the examination of long-term and posttreatment effects of dietary CLA intake on performance, variables of energy metabolism-like plasma levels of non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and fatty acid profile in milk fat. Forty-six pregnant German Holstein cows were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: (1) 100 g/ d of control fat supplement (CON), (2) 50 g/d of control fat supplement and 50 g/ d of CLA supplement (CLA-1) and (3) 100 g/d of CLA supplement (CLA-2). The lipid-encapsulated CLA supplement consisted of approximately 10% of trans-10, cis-12 CLA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA each. The experiment started 1 d after calving and continued for about 38 weeks, divided into a supplementation (26 weeks) and a depletion period (12 weeks). Over the first 7 weeks of treatment, 11 and 16% reductions in dry matter intake compared to control were observed for the cows fed CLA-1 and CLA-2 supplements respectively. Consequently, the calculated energy balance for these two CLA groups was lower compared to the control. Plasma levels of NEFA and BHB remained unaffected. Later in lactation the highest CLA supplementation resulted in a reduction of milk fat content of 0.7%. However, no reduction in milk fat yield, and accordingly no milk fat depression (MFD), could be shown. The trans-10, cis-12 CLA in milk fat increased with increasing dietary CLA supplementation in a dose-dependent manner. The proportion of C16 in milk fat was decreased by the highest CLA supplementation. With the exception of an increase in plasma glucose level in the CLA-2 group, no post-treatment effects were observed. Overall, under the conditions of the present study no improvement in the calculated energy balance by CLA supplementation could be shown for the entire evaluation period.

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    ABSTRACT: The study aimed to examine effects of supplemented CLA to periparturient dairy cows receiving different concentrate proportions antepartum (a.p.) to investigate CLA effects on metabolism and immune function. Compared with adapted feeding, high-concentrate diet a.p. should induce a ketogenic metabolic situation postpartum (p.p.) to better understand how CLA works. A total of 64 pregnant German Holstein cows had ad libitum access to partial mixed rations based on concentrate and roughage 3 weeks before calving until day 60 p.p. A.p., cows received 100 g/day control fat (CON) or a CLA supplement, either in a low-concentrate (20%, CON-20, CLA-20) or high-concentrate diet (60%, CON-60, CLA-60). P.p., concentrate proportion was adjusted to 50% while fat supplementation continued. After day 32 p.p., half of the animals of CLA-groups changed to CON supplementation (CLA-20-CON, CLA-60-CON). A ketogenic metabolic state p.p. was not achieved and respective impacts of CLA could not be examined. Blood samples for isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected on day −21, 7, 28 and 56 relative to calving. Blood chemistry samples were taken over the entire experimental period. Mitogen-stimulated proliferation of PBMC remained unaffected. Besides serum concentrations of triglycerides, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin and IGF-1, clinical-chemical serum characteristics remained uninfluenced by treatments. No post-supplementation effect could be observed. Measured blood metabolites and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of PBMC indicate that all groups had an increased metabolic stress around calving, whereby group CLA-20 was affected more severely. Overall, supplemented CLA did not positively affect metabolism or immune function of periparturient dairy cows. However, feeding CLA in a low-concentrate diet a.p. seems to increase liver stress around calving via reduced DMI.
    animal 03/2014; 9(03):481-489. DOI:10.1017/S175173111400264X · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nutritional and environmental conditions around conception and during early embryonic development may have significant effects on health and well-being in adult life. Here, a bovine heifer model was used to investigate the effects of rumen-protected fat supplementation on oocyte quality and embryo development. Holstein-Friesian heifers (n=84) received a dietary supplement consisting of rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) or stearic acid (SA), each on top of an isocaloric basic diet. Oocytes were collected via ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration and subjected to in vitro maturation followed by either desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) for lipid profiling of individual oocytes or in vitro fertilisation and embryo culture. The type of supplement significantly affected lipid profiles of in vitro-matured oocytes. Palmitic acid and plasmalogen species were more abundant in the mass spectra of in vitro-matured oocytes after rumen-protected SA supplementation when compared with those collected from animals supplemented with CLA. Lipid concentrations in blood and follicular fluid were significantly affected by both supplements. Results show that rumen-protected fatty-acid supplementation affects oocyte lipid content and may pave the way for the establishment of a large-animal model for studies towards a better understanding of reproductive disorders associated with nutritional impairments.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 02/2015; DOI:10.1071/RD14352 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a lipid-encapsulated CLA preparation on rumen metabolism and the actual post-ruminal bioavailability of the applied CLA isomers. In the rumen, the CLA supplementation modified the molar proportions of VFA. In period CLA-1 the rumen fermentation shifted toward more butyric acid at the expense of acetic acid. The highest CLA supplementation resulted in increased amounts of isobutyric, isovaleric, and valeric acid. The apparent ruminal digestibility of starch increased in period CLA-2. The ruminal protein degradation was higher after CLA supplementation, while the efficiency of the use of the RDP for microbial protein synthesis declined. The duodenal flow of trans-10,cis-12 CLA amounted to 16 and 5% of the intake in periods CLA-1 and CLA-2, respectively. The transfer of trans-10,cis-12 CLA from duodenum into milk was 36 and 48% in periods CLA-1 and CLA-2, respectively. Overall, the observed effects of the supplementation of lipid-encapsulated CLA on the parameters of rumen metabolism were negligible. The actual low post-ruminal bioavailability of trans-10,cis-12 CLA suggest that most of the applied fat supplement was biohydrogenated.
    European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 12/2011; 113(12). DOI:10.1002/ejlt.201100170 · 2.03 Impact Factor


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May 20, 2014

Ronny Kramer