Features and applications of bacterial sialidases.
ABSTRACT Sialidases, or neuraminidases (EC 184.108.40.206), belong to a class of glycosyl hydrolases that release terminal N-acylneuraminate residues from the glycans of glycoproteins, glycolipids, and polysaccharides. In bacteria, sialidases can be used to scavenge sialic acids as a nutrient from various sialylated substrates or to recognize sialic acids exposed on the surface of the host cell. Despite the fact that bacterial sialidases share many structural features, their biochemical properties, especially their linkage and substrate specificities, vary widely. Bacterial sialidases can catalyze the hydrolysis of terminal sialic acids linked by the α(2,3)-, α(2,6)-, or α(2,8)-linkage to a diverse range of substrates. In addition, some of these enzymes can catalyze the transfer of sialic acids from sialoglycans to asialoglycoconjugates via a transglycosylation reaction mechanism. Thus, some bacterial sialidases have been applied to synthesize complex sialyloligosaccharides through chemoenzymatic approaches and to analyze the glycan structure. In this review article, the biochemical features of bacterial sialidases and their potential applications in regioselective hydrolysis reactions as well as sialylation by transglycosylation for the synthesis of sialylated complex glycans are discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Mammalian cell surfaces are all covered with bioactive oligosaccharides which play an important role in molecular recognition events such as immune recognition, cell-cell communication and initiation of microbial pathogenesis. Consequently, bioactive oligosaccharides have been recognized as a medicinally relevant class of biomolecules for which the interest is growing. For the preparation of complex and highly pure oligosaccharides, methods based on the application of glycosyltransferases are currently recognized as being the most effective. The present paper reviews the potential of glycosyltransferases as synthetic tools in oligosaccharide synthesis. Reaction mechanisms and selected characteristics of these enzymes are described in relation to the stereochemistry of the transfer reaction and the requirements of sugar nucleotide donors. For the application of glycosyltransferases, accepted substrate profiles are summarized and the whole-cell approach versus isolated enzyme methodology is compared. Sialyltransferase-catalyzed syntheses of gangliosides and other sialylated oligosaccharides are described in more detail in view of the prominent role of these compounds in biological recognition.Biotechnology Advances 01/2008; 26(5):436-56. · 9.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Absence of sialylation on recombinant glycoproteins compromises their efficacy as therapeutic agents, as it results in rapid clearance from the human bloodstream. To circumvent this, several strategies are followed, including the implementation of a post-secretion glycosylation step. In this paper we describe the engineering of yeast cells expressing active surface exposed Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase (TS) fused to the yeast Aga2 protein, and the use of this yeast in the sialylation of synthetic oligosaccharides. In an attempt to improve overall protein accessibility on the yeast surface, we abolished hyperglycosylation on the yeast cell wall proteins. This was achieved by disrupting the OCH1 gene of the TS surface expressing strain, which resulted in increased enzymatic activity. Using a fluorescence-based activity assay and DSA-FACE structural analysis, we obtained almost complete conversion to a fully sialylated acceptor, whereas in the wild type situation this conversion was only partial. Increasing protein accessibility on the yeast surface by modifying the glycosylation content thus proved to be a valuable approach in increasing the cell wall associated activity of an immobilised enzyme, hence resulting in a more effective biocatalyst system.Journal of Biotechnology 11/2005; 119(4):379-88. · 3.18 Impact Factor
- Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry - BIOSCI BIOTECHNOL BIOCHEM. 01/1995; 59(4):638-643.