Caroli disease: review of eight cases with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging features
ABSTRACT Caroli disease is a rare congenital disorder characterized by segmental, nonobstructive dilatation of intrahepatic bile ducts. The term Caroli syndrome is used for the association of Caroli disease with congenital hepatic fibrosis.
To provide an overview of the clinical presentation and imaging features of Caroli disease and syndrome, with an emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging.
Retrospective analysis of medical records on eight patients in whom a histologic diagnosis of Caroli disease or syndrome had been made.
Presenting signs and symptoms were (hepato)splenomegaly, hematemesis and/or melena, cholangitis, jaundice, and recurrent fever. The central dot sign, defined in the literature as a dot or bundle of strong contrast enhancement within dilated intrahepatic ducts, was found in seven cases on various imaging modalities. A 'dot-like structure' was found in one case in which only unenhanced studies were available. There was a tendency toward a right hepatic-lobe predominance.
There is an overlap between the imaging features of Caroli disease and Caroli syndrome. Our findings support earlier reports that the central dot sign is highly specific for the disease, and that it can be reliably detected by current imaging techniques.
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ABSTRACT: Cystic dilatations of the bile ducts may be found along the extrahepatic biliary tree, within the liver, or in both of these locations simultaneously. Presentation in adults is often associated with complications. The therapeutic possibilities have changed considerably over the last few decades. If possible, complete resection of the cyst(s) can cure the symptoms and avoid the risk of malignancy. According to the type of bile duct cyst, surgical procedures include the Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy and variable types of hepatic resection. However, the diffuse forms of Todani type V cysts (Caroli disease and Caroli syndrome) in particular remain a therapeutic problem, and liver transplantation has become an important option. The mainstay of interventional treatment for Todani type III bile duct cysts is via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The diagnostic term "bile duct cyst" comprises quite different pathological and clinical entities. Interventional therapy, hepatic resection, and liver transplantation all have their place in the treatment of this heterogeneous disease group. They should not be seen as competitive treatment modalities, but as complementary options. Each patient should receive individualized treatment after all of the clinical findings have been considered by an interdisciplinary team.World Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2013; 19(32):5207-11. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v19.i32.5207 · 2.43 Impact Factor
Gut 05/2014; 63(10). DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-306987 · 13.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Here we present the case of an 11-year-old female patient diagnosed with Caroli syndrome, who had refractory esophageal varices. The patient had a history of recurrent bleeding from esophageal varices, which was treated with endoscopic variceal ligation thrice over a period of 2 years. However, the bleeding was not controlled. When the patient finally visited the Emergency Department, the hemoglobin level was 4.4 g/dL. Transhepatic intrajugular portosystemic shunt was unsuccessful. Subsequently, the patient underwent percutaneous transhepatic variceal obliteration. Twenty hours after this procedure, the patient complained of aphasia, dizziness, headache, and general weakness. Six hours later, the patient became drowsy and unresponsive to painful stimuli. Lipiodol particles used to embolize the coronary and posterior gastric veins might have passed into the systemic arterial circulation, and they were found to be lodged in the brain, kidney, lung, and stomach. There was no abnormality of the portal vein on portal venography, and blood flow to the azygos vein through the paravertebral and hemiazygos systems was found to drain to the systemic circulation on coronary venography. Contrast echocardiography showed no pulmonary arteriovenous fistula. Symptoms improved with conservative management, and the esophageal varices were found to have improved on esophagogastroduodenoscopy.Korean Journal of Pediatrics 11/2013; 56(11):500-504. DOI:10.3345/kjp.2013.56.11.500