Gut sensing of dietary K⁺ intake increases renal K⁺excretion.
ABSTRACT Dietary K(+) intake may increase renal K(+) excretion via increasing plasma [K(+)] and/or activating a mechanism independent of plasma [K(+)]. We evaluated these mechanisms during normal dietary K(+) intake. After an overnight fast, [K(+)] and renal K(+) excretion were measured in rats fed either 0% K(+) or the normal 1% K(+) diet. In a third group, rats were fed with the 0% K(+) diet, and KCl was infused to match plasma [K(+)] profile to that of the 1% K(+) diet group. The 1% K(+) feeding significantly increased renal K(+) excretion, associated with slight increases in plasma [K(+)], whereas the 0% K(+) diet decreased K(+) excretion, associated with decreases in plasma [K(+)]. In the KCl-infused 0% K(+) diet group, renal K(+) excretion was significantly less than that of the 1% K(+) group, despite matched plasma [K(+)] profiles. We also examined whether dietary K(+) alters plasma profiles of gut peptides, such as guanylin, uroguanylin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, pituitary peptides, such as AVP, α-MSH, and γ-MSH, or aldosterone. Our data do not support a role for these hormones in the stimulation of renal K(+) excretion during normal K(+) intake. In conclusion, postprandial increases in renal K(+) excretion cannot be fully accounted for by changes in plasma [K(+)] and that gut sensing of dietary K(+) is an important component of the regulation of renal K(+) excretion. Our studies on gut and pituitary peptide hormones suggest that there may be previously unknown humoral factors that stimulate renal K(+) excretion during dietary K(+) intake.
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ABSTRACT: Guanylin peptides (GPs) family includes guanylin (GN), uroguanylin (UGN), lymphoguanylin, and recently discovered renoguanylin. This growing family is proposed to be intestinal natriuretic peptides. After ingestion of a salty meal, GN and UGN are secreted into the intestinal lumen, where they inhibit sodium absorption and induce anion and water secretion. At the same conditions, those hormones stimulate renal electrolyte excretion by inducing natriuresis, kaliuresis, and diuresis and therefore prevent hypernatremia and hypervolemia after salty meals. In the intestine, a well-known receptor for GPs is guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) whose activation increases intracellular concentration of cGMP. However, in the kidney of GC-C-deficient mice, effects of GPs are unaltered, which could be by new cGMP-independent signaling pathway (G-protein-coupled receptor). This is not unusual as atrial natriuretic peptide also activates two different types of receptors: guanylate cylcase A and clearance receptor which is also G-protein coupled receptor. Physiological role of GPs in other organs (liver, pancreas, lung, sweat glands, and male reproductive system) needs to be discovered. However, it is known that they are involved in pathological conditions like cystic fibrosis, asthma, intestinal tumors, kidney and heart failure, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.ISRN Nephrology. 04/2013; 2013.
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ABSTRACT: Potassium is fundamental for cell functioning including signal transduction, acid-base- and water-metabolism. Since diet of dairy cows is generally rich in potassium, hypokalemia was not in the focus of research for long time. Furthermore, hypokalemia was not frequently diagnosed because blood potassium content is difficult to measure. In recent years, measurement methods have been improved. Nowadays hypokalemia is increasingly diagnosed in cows with disorders such as abomasal displacement, ketosis or down cow syndrome, calling for intensified research on this topic. In this report we describe the development of a basic mechanistic, dynamic model of potassium balance based on ordinary differential and algebraic equations. Parameter values are obtained from data of a clinical trial in which potassium balance and the influence of therapeutic intervention in glucose and electrolyte metabolism on potassium balance in non-lactating dairy cows were studied. The model is formulated at a high abstraction level and includes information and hypotheses from literature. This work represents a first step towards the understanding and design of effective prophylactic feed additives and treatment strategies.ZIB Report. 02/2013; 13-09.
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ABSTRACT: Extracellular K(+) homeostasis has been explained by feedback mechanisms in which changes in extracellular K(+) concentration drive renal K(+) excretion directly or indirectly via stimulating aldosterone secretion. However, this cannot explain meal-induced kaliuresis, which often occurs without increases in plasma K(+) or aldosterone concentrations. Recent studies have produced evidence supporting a feedforward control in which gut sensing of dietary K(+) increases renal K(+) excretion (and extrarenal K(+) uptake) independent of plasma K(+) concentrations, namely, a gut factor. This review focuses on these new findings and discusses the role of gut factor in acute and chronic regulation of extracellular K(+) as well as in the beneficial effects of high K(+) intake on the cardiovascular system.Seminars in Nephrology 05/2013; 33(3):248-56. · 2.83 Impact Factor