Dietary K(+) intake may increase renal K(+) excretion via increasing plasma [K(+)] and/or activating a mechanism independent of plasma [K(+)]. We evaluated these mechanisms during normal dietary K(+) intake. After an overnight fast, [K(+)] and renal K(+) excretion were measured in rats fed either 0% K(+) or the normal 1% K(+) diet. In a third group, rats were fed with the 0% K(+) diet, and KCl was infused to match plasma [K(+)] profile to that of the 1% K(+) diet group. The 1% K(+) feeding significantly increased renal K(+) excretion, associated with slight increases in plasma [K(+)], whereas the 0% K(+) diet decreased K(+) excretion, associated with decreases in plasma [K(+)]. In the KCl-infused 0% K(+) diet group, renal K(+) excretion was significantly less than that of the 1% K(+) group, despite matched plasma [K(+)] profiles. We also examined whether dietary K(+) alters plasma profiles of gut peptides, such as guanylin, uroguanylin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, pituitary peptides, such as AVP, α-MSH, and γ-MSH, or aldosterone. Our data do not support a role for these hormones in the stimulation of renal K(+) excretion during normal K(+) intake. In conclusion, postprandial increases in renal K(+) excretion cannot be fully accounted for by changes in plasma [K(+)] and that gut sensing of dietary K(+) is an important component of the regulation of renal K(+) excretion. Our studies on gut and pituitary peptide hormones suggest that there may be previously unknown humoral factors that stimulate renal K(+) excretion during dietary K(+) intake.
"GN has mostly kaliuretic effects in the kidneys; therefore, it was reasonable to believe that GN could play a significant role in potassium secretion after increased dietary potassium intake. Recently, Oh et al. showed that GN and UGN are not involved in intestinal sensing of dietary potassium intake and still unknown hormones stimulate kidney potassium excretion due to increased potassium intake . As can be expected by structure containing 3 disulfide bonds (Figure 1), STa effects in the kidneys are more pronounced compared to GPs as it is shown for intestine obviously activating all signaling pathways present [21, 61]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Guanylin peptides (GPs) family includes guanylin (GN), uroguanylin (UGN), lymphoguanylin, and recently discovered renoguanylin. This growing family is proposed to be intestinal natriuretic peptides. After ingestion of a salty meal, GN and UGN are secreted into the intestinal lumen, where they inhibit sodium absorption and induce anion and water secretion. At the same conditions, those hormones stimulate renal electrolyte excretion by inducing natriuresis, kaliuresis, and diuresis and therefore prevent hypernatremia and hypervolemia after salty meals.
In the intestine, a well-known receptor for GPs is guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) whose activation increases intracellular concentration of cGMP. However, in the kidney of GC-C-deficient mice, effects of GPs are unaltered, which could be by new cGMP-independent signaling pathway (G-protein-coupled receptor). This is not unusual as atrial natriuretic peptide also activates two different types of receptors: guanylate cylcase A and clearance receptor which is also G-protein coupled receptor. Physiological role of GPs in other organs (liver, pancreas, lung, sweat glands, and male reproductive system) needs to be discovered. However, it is known that they are involved in pathological conditions like cystic fibrosis, asthma, intestinal tumors, kidney and heart failure, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The discovery of the renal outer medullary K+ channel (ROMK, K(ir)1.1), the founding member of the inward-rectifying K+ channel (K(ir)) family, by Ho and Hebert in 1993 revolutionized our understanding of potassium channel biology and renal potassium handling. Because of the central role that ROMK plays in the regulation of salt and potassium homeostasis, considerable efforts have been invested in understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms. Here we provide a comprehensive guide to ROMK, spanning from the physiology in the kidney to the organization and regulation by intracellular factors to the structural basis of its function at the atomic level.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypokalemia is common and can be associated with serious adverse consequences, including paralysis, ileus, cardiac arrhythmias, and death. As a result, the body maintains serum potassium concentration within very narrow limits by tightly regulated feedback and feed-forward systems. Whereas the consequences of symptomatic hypokalemia and severe potassium depletion are well appreciated, chronic mild hypokalemia can accelerate the progression of chronic kidney disease, exacerbate systemic hypertension, and increase mortality. Persistent hypokalemia may reflect total-body potassium depletion or increased renal potassium clearance. In a patient with simple potassium depletion, potassium replacement therapy should correct serum potassium concentration, but may have little effect when renal potassium clearance is abnormally increased from potassium wasting. In such cases, the addition of potassium-sparing diuretics might be helpful. Serum potassium concentration is an inaccurate marker of total-body potassium deficit. Mild hypokalemia may be associated with significant total-body potassium deficits and conversely, total-body potassium stores can be normal in patients with hypokalemia due to redistribution. The speed and extent of potassium replacement should be dictated by the clinical picture and guided by frequent reassessment of serum potassium concentration(.) The goals of therapy should be to correct a potassium deficit, if present, without provoking hyperkalemia. Oral replacement is preferred except when there is no functioning bowel or in the setting of electrocardiogram changes, neurologic symptoms, cardiac ischemia, or digitalis therapy.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases 09/2012; 60(3):492-7. DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.01.031 · 5.90 Impact Factor
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