Chemical induction of endogenous retrovirus particles from the vero cell line of African green monkeys.

Laboratory of Retroviruses, Division of Viral Products, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 8800 Rockville Pike, HFM-454, Bldg. 29B, Room 4NN10, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.65). 07/2011; 85(13):6579-88. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00147-11
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Endogenous retroviral sequences are present in high copy numbers in the genomes of all species and may be expressed as RNAs; however, the majority are defective for virus production. Although virus has been isolated from various Old World monkey and New World monkey species, there has been no report of endogenous retroviruses produced from African green monkey (AGM) tissues or cell lines. We have recently developed a stepwise approach for evaluating the presence of latent viruses by chemical induction (Khan et al., Biologicals 37:196-201, 2009). Based upon this strategy, optimum conditions were determined for investigating the presence of inducible, endogenous retroviruses in the AGM-derived Vero cell line. Low-level reverse transcriptase activity was produced with 5-azacytidine (AzaC) and with 5'-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (IUdR); none was detected with sodium butyrate. Nucleotide sequence analysis of PCR-amplified fragments from the gag, pol, and env regions of RNAs, prepared from ultracentrifuged pellets of filtered supernatants, indicated that endogenous retrovirus particles related to simian endogenous type D betaretrovirus (SERV) sequences and baboon endogenous virus type C gammaretrovirus (BaEV) sequences were induced by AzaC, whereas SERV sequences were also induced by IUdR. Additionally, sequence heterogeneity was seen in the RNAs of SERV- and BaEV-related particles. Infectivity analysis of drug-treated AGM Vero cells showed no virus replication in cell lines known to be susceptible to type D simian retroviruses (SRVs) and to BaEV. The results indicated that multiple, inducible endogenous retrovirus loci are present in the AGM genome that can encode noninfectious, viruslike particles.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Baboon endogenous virus (BaEV) is an infectious endogenous gammaretrovirus isolated from a baboon placenta. BaEV-related sequences have been identified in both Old World monkeys and African apes, but not in humans or Asian apes. Recently, it was reported that BaEV-like particles were produced from Vero cells derived from African green monkeys by chemical induction, and thus BaEV-like particles may contaminate biological products manufactured using Vero cells. In this study, we constructed an infectious molecular clone of BaEV strain M7. We found two putative L-domain motifs, PPPY and PSAP, in the pp15 region of Gag. To examine the function of the L-domain motifs, we conducted virus budding assay using L-domain motif mutants. We revealed that the PPPY motif, but not the PSAP motif, plays a major role as the L-domain in BaEV budding. We also demonstrated that Vps4A/B are involved in BaEV budding. These data suggest that BaEV Gag recruits the cellular endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery through the interaction of the PPPY L-domain with cellular factors. These data will be useful for controlling contamination of BaEV-like particles in biological products in the future. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Virus Research 11/2014; 196. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2014.11.020 · 2.83 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Continuous cell lines that originate from mammalian tissues serve as not only invaluable tools for life sciences, but also important animal cell substrates for the production of various types of biological pharmaceuticals. Vero cells are susceptible to various types of microbes and toxins and have widely contributed to not only microbiology, but also the production of vaccines for human use. We here showed the genome landscape of a Vero cell line, in which 25,877 putative protein-coding genes were identified in the 2.97-Gb genome sequence. A homozygous ∼9-Mb deletion on chromosome 12 caused the loss of the type I interferon gene cluster and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor genes in Vero cells. In addition, an ∼59-Mb loss of heterozygosity around this deleted region suggested that the homozygosity of the deletion was established by a large-scale conversion. Moreover, a genomic analysis of Vero cells revealed a female Chlorocebus sabaeus origin and proviral variations of the endogenous simian type D retrovirus. These results revealed the genomic basis for the non-tumourigenic permanent Vero cell lineage susceptible to various pathogens and will be useful for generating new sub-lines and developing new tools in the quality control of Vero cells.
    DNA research: an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes 09/2014; 21(6). DOI:10.1093/dnares/dsu029 · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Advanced nucleic acid-based technologies are powerful research tools for novel virus discovery but need to be standardized for broader applications such as virus detection in biological products and clinical samples. We have used well-characterized retrovirus stocks to evaluate the limit of detection (LOD) for broad-range PCR with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS or PLEX-ID), RT-PCR assays, and virus microarrays. The results indicated that in the absence of background cellular nucleic acids, PLEX-ID and RT-PCR had a similar LOD for xenotropic murine retrovirus-related virus (XMRV; 3.12 particles per µL) whereas sensitivity of virus detection was 10-fold greater using virus microarrays. When virus was spiked into a background of cellular nucleic acids, the LOD using PLEX-ID remained the same, whereas virus detection by RT-PCR was 10-fold less sensitive, and no virus could be detected by microarrays. Expected endogenous retrovirus (ERV) sequences were detected in cell lines tested and known species-specific viral sequences were detected in bovine serum and porcine trypsin. A follow-up strategy was developed using PCR amplification, nucleotide sequencing, and bioinformatics to demonstrate that an RD114-like retrovirus sequence that was detected by PLEX-ID in canine cell lines (Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and Cf2Th canine thymus) was due to defective, endogenous gammaretrovirus-related sequences.
    Viruses 05/2014; 6(5):1876-96. DOI:10.3390/v6051876 · 3.28 Impact Factor


Available from