Genetic and biochemical characterization of a pathway for the degradation of 2-aminoethylphosphonate in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021.
ABSTRACT A variety of microorganisms have the ability to use phosphonic acids as sole sources of phosphorus. Here, a novel pathway for degradation of 2-aminoethylphosphonate in the bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 is proposed based on the analysis of the genome sequence. Gene deletion experiments confirmed the involvement of the locus containing phnW, phnA, and phnY genes in the conversion of 2-aminoethylphosphonate to inorganic phosphate. Biochemical studies of the recombinant PhnY and PhnA proteins verified their roles as phosphonoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase and phosphonoacetate hydrolase, respectively. This pathway is likely not limited to S. meliloti as suggested by the presence of homologous gene clusters in other bacterial genomes.
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ABSTRACT: We report the draft genome sequence of Serratia sp. strain DD3, a gammaproteobacterium from the family Enterobacteriaceae. It was isolated from homogenized guts of Daphnia magna. The genome size is 5,274 Mb.Genome Announcements 09/2014; 2(5).
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ABSTRACT: The Delta-Proteobacterium Desulfotignum phosphitoxidans is a type strain of the genus Desulfotignum, which comprises to date only three species together with D. balticum and D. toluenicum. D. phosphitoxidans oxidizes phosphite to phosphate as its only source of electrons, with either sulfate or CO2 as electron acceptor to gain its metabolic energy, which is of exclusive interest. Sequencing of the genome of this bacterium was undertaken to elucidate the genomic basis of this so far unique type of energy metabolism. The genome contains 4,998,761 base pairs and 4646 genes of which 3609 were assigned to a function, and 1037 are without function prediction. Metabolic reconstruction revealed that most biosynthetic pathways of Gram negative, autotrophic sulfate reducers were present. Autotrophic CO2 assimilation proceeds through the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Additionally, we have found and confirmed the ability of the strain to couple phosphite oxidation to dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia, which in itself is a new type of energy metabolism. Surprisingly, only two pathways for uptake, assimilation and utilization of inorganic and organic phosphonates were found in the genome. The unique for D. phosphitoxidans Ptx-Ptd cluster is involved in inorganic phosphite oxidation and an atypical C-P lyase-coding cluster (Phn) is involved in utilization of organophosphonates. We present the whole genome sequence of the first bacterium able to gain metabolic energy via phosphite oxidation. The data obtained provide initial information on the composition and architecture of the phosphite--utilizing and energy-transducing systems needed to live with phosphite as an unusual electron donor.BMC Genomics 11/2013; 14(1):753. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SUMMARY After several decades of use of glyphosate, the active ingredient in weed killers such as Roundup, in fields, forests, and gardens, the biochemical pathway of transformation of glyphosate phosphorus to a useful phosphorus source for microorganisms has been disclosed. Glyphosate is a member of a large group of chemicals, phosphonic acids or phosphonates, which are characterized by a carbon-phosphorus bond. This is in contrast to the general phosphorus compounds utilized and metabolized by microorganisms. Here phosphorus is found as phosphoric acid or phosphate ion, phosphoric acid esters, or phosphoric acid anhydrides. The latter compounds contain phosphorus that is bound only to oxygen. Hydrolytic, oxidative, and radical-based mechanisms for carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage have been described. This review deals with the radical-based mechanism employed by the carbon-phosphorus lyase of the carbon-phosphorus lyase pathway, which involves reactions for activation of phosphonate, carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage, and further chemical transformation before a useful phosphate ion is generated in a series of seven or eight enzyme-catalyzed reactions. The phn genes, encoding the enzymes for this pathway, are widespread among bacterial species. The processes are described with emphasis on glyphosate as a substrate. Additionally, the catabolism of glyphosate is intimately connected with that of aminomethylphosphonate, which is also treated in this review. Results of physiological and genetic analyses are combined with those of bioinformatics analyses.Microbiology and molecular biology reviews: MMBR 03/2014; 78(1):176-97. · 12.59 Impact Factor