Use of a secretion trap screen in pepper following Phytophthora capsici infection reveals novel functions of secreted plant proteins in modulating cell death.
ABSTRACT In plants, the primary defense against pathogens is mostly inducible and associated with cell wall modification and defense-related gene expression, including many secreted proteins. To study the role of secreted proteins, a yeast-based signal-sequence trap screening was conducted with the RNA from Phytophthora capsici-inoculated root of Capsicum annuum 'Criollo de Morelos 334' (CM334). In total, 101 Capsicum annuum secretome (CaS) clones were isolated and identified, of which 92 were predicted to have a secretory signal sequence at their N-terminus. To identify differences in expressed CaS genes between resistant and susceptible cultivars of pepper, reverse Northern blots and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed with RNA samples isolated at different time points following P. capsici inoculation. In an attempt to assign biological functions to CaS genes, we performed in planta knock-down assays using the Tobacco rattle virus-based gene-silencing method. Silencing of eight CaS genes in pepper resulted in suppression of the cell death induced by the non-host bacterial pathogen (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato T1). Three CaS genes induced phenotypic abnormalities in silenced plants and one, CaS259 (PR4-l), caused both cell death suppression and perturbed phenotypes. These results provide evidence that the CaS genes may play important roles in pathogen defense as well as developmental processes.
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ABSTRACT: A method was developed to clone, without the use of specific functional assays, complementary DNAs (cDNAs) that carry specific amino-terminal signal sequences, such as those encoding intercellular signal-transducing molecules and receptors. The vector used in this system directed the cell surface expression of interleukin-2 receptor fusion proteins when inserts with signal sequences were cloned in-frame with the correct orientation. An expression cDNA library was constructed from a bone marrow stromal cell line, which contained 5' portion-enriched cDNAs (the average size was 400 base pairs). Two cDNAs that encoded putative cytokine molecules, stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1 alpha) and SDF-1 beta, which belong to the intercrine-macrophage inflammatory protein superfamily, were cloned.Science 08/1993; 261(5121):600-3. · 31.03 Impact Factor
- Trends in Biochemical Sciences 07/1994; 19(6):258-60. · 13.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The hypersensitive reaction to a pathogen is one of the most efficient defense mechanisms in nature and leads to the induction of numerous plant genes encoding defense proteins. These proteins include: 1) structural proteins that are incorporated into the extracellular matrix and participate in the confinement of the pathogen; 2) enzymes of secondary metabolism, for instance those of the biosynthesis of plant antibiotics; 3) pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins which represent major quantitative changes in soluble protein during the defense response. The PRs have typical physicochemical properties that enable them to resist to acidic pH and proteolytic cleavage and thus survive in the harsh environments where they occur: vacuolar compartment or cell wall or intercellular spaces. Since the discovery of the first PRs in tobacco many other similar proteins have been isolated from tobacco but also from other plant species, including dicots and monocots, the widest range being characterized from hypersensitively reacting tobacco. Based first on serological properties and later on sequence data, the tobacco PRs have been classified in five major groups. Group PR-1 contains the first discovered PRs of 15-17 kDa molecular mass, whose biological activity is still unknown, but some members have been shown recently to have antifungal activity. Group PR-2 contains three structurally distinct classes of 1,3-beta-glucanases, with acidic and basic counterparts, with dramatically different specific activity towards linear 1,3-beta-glucans and with different substrate specificity. Group PR-3 consists of various chitinases-lysozymes that belong to three distinct classes, are vacuolar or extracellular, and exhibit differential chitinase and lysozyme activities. Some of them, either alone or in combination with 1,3-beta-glucanases, have been shown to be antifungal in vitro and in vivo (transgenic plants), probably by hydrolysing their substrates as structural components in the fungal cell wall. Group PR-4 is the less studied, and in tobacco contains four members of 13-14.5 kDa of unknown activity and function. Group PR-5 contains acidic-neutral and very basic members with extracellular and vacuolar localization, respectively, and all members show sequence similarity to the sweet-tasting protein thaumatin. Several members of the PR-5 group from tobacco and other plant species were shown to display significant in vitro activity of inhibiting hyphal growth or spore germination of various fungi probably by a membrane permeabilizing mechanism.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)Biochimie 02/1993; 75(8):687-706. · 3.14 Impact Factor