Hematopoietic cytokines, traditionally known to influence cellular proliferation, differentiation, maturation, and lineage commitment in the bone marrow, include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor, Flt-3 ligand, and erythropoietin among others. Emerging evidence suggests that these cytokines also exert multifarious biological effects on diverse nonhematopoietic organs and tissues. Although the precise mechanisms remain unclear, numerous studies in animal models of myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure indicate that hematopoietic cytokines confer potent cardiovascular benefits, possibly through mobilization and subsequent homing of bone marrow-derived cells into the infarcted heart with consequent induction of myocardial repair involving multifarious mechanisms. In addition, these cytokines are also known to exert direct cytoprotective effects. However, results from small-scale clinical trials of G-CSF therapy as a single agent after acute MI have been discordant and largely disappointing. It is likely that cardiac repair following cytokine therapy depends on a number of known and unknown variables, and further experimental and clinical studies are certainly warranted to accurately determine the true therapeutic potential of such therapy. In this review, we discuss the biological features of several key hematopoietic cytokines and present the basic and clinical evidence pertaining to cardiac repair with hematopoietic cytokine therapy.
"Therefore, we implemented a mobilization scheme in which G-CSF was applied in a relatively high dosage (250 µg/kg) for a short period of 3 days starting directly after induction of MI. This experimental setting was directed to support early cytoprotective actions  while avoiding long-term detrimental effects of G-CSF promoted inflammatory processes , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims
Several studies suggest that circulating bone marrow derived stem cells promote the regeneration of ischemic tissues. For hematopoietic stem cell transplantation combinatorial granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)/Plerixafor (AMD3100) administration was shown to enhance mobilization of bone marrow derived stem cells compared to G-CSF monotherapy. Here we tested the hypothesis whether combinatorial G-CSF/AMD3100 therapy has beneficial effects in cardiac recovery in a mouse model of myocardial infarction.
We analyzed the effect of single G-CSF (250 µg/kg/day) and combinatorial G-CSF/AMD3100 (100 µg/kg/day) treatment on cardiac morphology, vascularization, and hemodynamics 28 days after permanent ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). G-CSF treatment started directly after induction of myocardial infarction (MI) for 3 consecutive days followed by a single AMD3100 application on day three after MI in the G-CSF/AMD3100 group. Cell mobilization was assessed by flow cytometry of blood samples drawn from tail vein on day 0, 7, and 14.
Peripheral blood analysis 7 days after MI showed enhanced mobilization of white blood cells (WBC) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) upon G-CSF and combinatorial G-CSF/AMD3100 treatment. However, single or combinatorial treatment showed no improvement in survival, left ventricular function, and infarction size compared to the saline treated control group 28 days after MI. Furthermore, no differences in histology and vascularization of infarcted hearts could be observed.
Although the implemented treatment regimen caused no adverse effects, our data show that combinatorial G-CSF/AMD therapy does not promote myocardial regeneration after permanent LAD occlusion.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e104644. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0104644 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Emerging roles in cardiac disease therapies have been demonstrated for hematopoietic cytokines like GCSF, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), SCF, Flt-3 ligand, and erythropoietin (EPO). In fact, these molecules induce mobilization and homing of HSCs and also exert cytoprotective effects like reduction of apoptosis and induction of angiogenesis . Currently, phase I and II clinical trials (REPAIR-ACS, REGEN-AMI, TIME, and LATE TIME) are ongoing with bone marrow-derived HSCs in the therapy of myocardium infarct . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are valuable platforms for new therapies based on regenerative medicine. BM-MSCs era is coming of age since the potential of these cells is increasingly demonstrated. In fact, these cells give origin to osteoblasts, chondroblasts, and adipocyte precursors in vitro, and they can also differentiate versus other mesodermal cell types like skeletal muscle precursors and cardiomyocytes. In our short review, we focus on the more recent manipulations of BM-MSCs toward skeletal and heart muscle differentiation, a growing field of obvious relevance considering the toll of muscle disease (i.e., muscular dystrophies), the heavier toll of heart disease in developed countries, and the still not completely understood mechanisms of muscle differentiation and repair.
BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014:762695. DOI:10.1155/2014/762695 · 2.71 Impact Factor
"Many reports have shown that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) also induce BMC mobilization, with therapeutic effects in animal models . However, G-CSF therapy in unselected patients with acute MI did not lead to functional improvements beyond those achieved with conventional therapy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A prostacyclin analogue, ONO-1301, is reported to upregulate beneficial proteins, including stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1). We hypothesized that the sustained-release delivery of ONO-1301 would enhance SDF-1 expression in the acute myocardial infarction (MI) heart and induce bone marrow cells (BMCs) to home to the myocardium, leading to improved cardiac function in mice.
ONO-1301 significantly upregulated SDF-1 secretion by fibroblasts. BMC migration was greater to ONO-1301-stimulated than unstimulated conditioned medium. This increase was diminished by treating the BMCs with a CXCR4-neutralizing antibody or CXCR4 antagonist (AMD3100). Atelocollagen sheets containing a sustained-release form of ONO-1301 (n = 33) or ONO-1301-free vehicle (n = 48) were implanted on the left ventricular (LV) anterior wall immediately after permanent left-anterior descending artery occlusion in C57BL6/N mice (male, 8-weeks-old). The SDF-1 expression in the infarct border zone was significantly elevated for 1 month in the ONO-1301-treated group. BMC accumulation in the infarcted hearts, detected by in vivo imaging after intravenous injection of labeled BMCs, was enhanced in the ONO-1301-treated hearts. This increase was inhibited by AMD3100. The accumulated BMCs differentiated into capillary structures. The survival rates and cardiac function were significantly improved in the ONO-1301-treated group (fractional area change 23±1%; n = 22) compared to the vehicle group (19±1%; n = 20; P = 0.004). LV anterior wall thinning, expansion of infarction, and fibrosis were lower in the ONO-1301-treated group.
Sustained-release delivery of ONO-1301 promoted BMC recruitment to the acute MI heart via SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and restored cardiac performance, suggesting a novel mechanism for ONO-1301-mediated acute-MI heart repair.
PLoS ONE 07/2013; 8(7):e69302. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0069302 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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