Characterization of the Antibody Response to the Saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in People Living in Endemic Areas of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

Institut Pasteur de Tunis, Tunis-Ville, Tūnis, Tunisia
The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene (Impact Factor: 2.74). 05/2011; 84(5):653-61. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0598
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Important data obtained in mice raise the possibility that immunization against the saliva of sand flies could protect from leishmaniasis. Sand fly saliva stimulates the production of specific antibodies in individuals living in endemic areas of parasite transmission. To characterize the humoral immune response against the saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi in humans, we carried out a prospective study on 200 children living in areas of Leishmania major transmission. We showed that 83% of donors carried anti-saliva IgG antibodies, primarily of IgG4 isotype. Positive sera reacted differentially with seven salivary proteins. The protein PpSP30 was prominently recognized by all the sera. The salivary proteins triggered the production of various antibody isotypes. Interestingly, the immunodominant PpSP30 was recognized by all IgG subclasses, whereas PpSP12 was not by IgG4. Immunoproteomic analyses may help to identify the impact of each salivary protein on the L. major infection and to select potential vaccine candidates.

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Available from: Soumaya Marzouki, Aug 21, 2015
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    • "Indeed, individuals in contact with the vectors' bites could produce various levels (high to low) of antisaliva Ab response which depend on the real level of human exposure to vectors bites. This evidence has been demonstrated for a wide range of vectors, such as tick [11] [12] [13] [14], mosquito [15– 19], and sand flies [20] [21] [22] [23]. Furthermore, this biomarker approach has been used to evaluate the efficacy of vector control strategy employed in the field by the quantitative evaluation of antisaliva immunoglobulin G (IgG). "
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    ABSTRACT: Aedes borne viruses represent public health problems in southern countries and threat to emerge in the developed world. Their control is currently based on vector population control. Much effort is being devoted to develop new tools to control such arbovirus. Recent findings suggest that the evaluation of human antibody (Ab) response to arthropod salivary proteins is relevant to measuring the level of human exposure to mosquito bites. Using an immunoepidemiological approach, the present study aimed to assess the usefulness of the salivary biomarker for measuring the efficacy of Ae. albopictus control strategies in La Reunion urban area. The antisaliva Ab response of adult humans exposed to Ae. albopictus was evaluatedbefore and after vector control measures. Our results showed a significant correlation between antisaliva Ab response and the level of exposure to vectors bites. The decrease of Ae. albopictus density has been detected by this biomarker two weeks after the implementation of control measures, suggesting its potential usefulness for evaluating control strategies in a short time period. The identification of species specific salivary proteins/peptides should improve the use of this biomarker.
    04/2014; 2014:746509. DOI:10.1155/2014/746509
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    • "Biomarkers for exposure to sand flies bites shows an association with a Th2 phenotype (Rohousova et al., 2005; de Moura et al., 2007; Marzouki et al., 2011). Although production of antibodies against vector saliva suggests an increased chance of encountering an infected bite and developing disease , constant exposure to non-infected bites in endemic areas could possibly modulate the host's immune response to affect a successful settlement of the parasite. "
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    ABSTRACT: Intense research efforts so far have not been sufficient to reduce leishmaniasis burden worldwide. This disease is transmitted by bites of infected sand flies, which inject saliva in the host skin in an attempt to obtain a blood meal. Sand fly saliva has an array of proteins with diverse pharmacological properties that modulates the host homeostatic and immune responses. Some of these proteins are also immunogenic and can induce both cellular and humoral immune responses. Recently, the use of sand fly salivary proteins to estimate exposure to sand fly bites and consequently the risk of infection has emerged. Here, we review evidence that supports the use of the host immune responses against sand fly salivary proteins to estimate risk of infection. We also discuss how the use of recombinant salivary proteins can optimize serological surveys and provide guidance for the implementation of specific measures for disease control in endemic areas.
    Frontiers in Immunology 05/2012; 3:121. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2012.00121
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    • "The presence of antibodies in humans, dogs and foxes in endemic areas of leishmaniasis has been well documented raising an opportunity to use anti-saliva antibodies as markers of vector exposure (Barral et al., 2000; Gomes et al., 2002, 2007; Rohousova et al., 2005a; Silva et al., 2005; Bahia et al., 2007; de Moura et al., 2007; Vinhas et al., 2007; Hostomska et al., 2008; Aquino et al., 2010; Souza et al., 2010; Teixeira et al., 2010; Vlkova et al., 2011). Apart from being epidemiological tools, anti-saliva antibodies have been linked to increased risk of CL caused by L. tropica (Rohousova et al., 2005a), L. braziliensis (de Moura et al., 2007), or L. major (Marzouki et al., 2011) in Turkey, Brazil, and Tunisia, respectively. On the other hand, the presence of antibodies to salivary proteins from sand fly vectors of VL correlated with protection in humans (Gomes et al., 2002; Aquino et al., 2010) and more recently in dogs (Vlkova et al., 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted by bites of phlebotomine sand flies. During Leishmania transmission, sand fly saliva is co-inoculated with parasites into the skin of the mammalian host. Sand fly saliva consists of roughly thirty different salivary proteins, many with known roles linked to blood feeding facilitation. Apart from the anti-hemostatic capacity of saliva, several sand fly salivary proteins have been shown to be immunogenic. Immunization with a single salivary protein or exposure to uninfected bites was shown to result in a protective immune response against leishmaniasis. Antibodies to saliva were not required for this protection. A strong body of evidence points to the role for saliva-specific T cells producing IFN-γ in the form of a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction at the bite site as the main protective response. Herein, we review the immunity to sand fly salivary proteins in the context of its vector-parasite-host combinations and their vaccine potential, as well as some recent advances to shed light on the mechanism of how an immune response to sand fly saliva protects against leishmaniasis.
    Frontiers in Immunology 05/2012; 3(article 110):110. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2012.00110
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