Article

Canakinumab reduces the risk of acute gouty arthritis flares during initiation of allopurinol treatment: results of a double-blind, randomised study

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, USA.
Annals of the rheumatic diseases (Impact Factor: 9.27). 07/2011; 70(7):1264-71. DOI: 10.1136/ard.2010.144063
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study assessed the efficacy and safety of canakinumab, a fully human anti-interleukin 1β monoclonal antibody, for prophylaxis against acute gouty arthritis flares in patients initiating urate-lowering treatment.
In this double-blind, double-dummy, dose-ranging study, 432 patients with gouty arthritis initiating allopurinol treatment were randomised 1:1:1:1:1:1:2 to receive: a single dose of canakinumab, 25, 50, 100, 200, or 300 mg subcutaneously; 4×4-weekly doses of canakinumab (50+50+25+25 mg subcutaneously); or daily colchicine 0.5 mg orally for 16 weeks. Patients recorded details of flares in diaries. The study aimed to determine the canakinumab dose having equivalent efficacy to colchicine 0.5 mg at 16 weeks.
A dose-response for canakinumab was not apparent with any of the four predefined dose-response models. The estimated canakinumab dose with equivalent efficacy to colchicine was below the range of doses tested. At 16 weeks, there was a 62% to 72% reduction in the mean number of flares per patient for canakinumab doses ≥50 mg versus colchicine based on a negative binomial model (rate ratio: 0.28-0.38, p≤0.0083), and the percentage of patients experiencing ≥1 flare was significantly lower for all canakinumab doses (15% to 27%) versus colchicine (44%, p<0.05). There was a 64% to 72% reduction in the risk of experiencing ≥1 flare for canakinumab doses ≥50 mg versus colchicine at 16 weeks (hazard ratio (HR): 0.28-0.36, p≤0.05). The incidence of adverse events was similar across treatment groups.
Single canakinumab doses ≥50 mg or four 4-weekly doses provided superior prophylaxis against flares compared with daily colchicine 0.5 mg.

Full-text

Available from: Alison Balfour, Jun 18, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
145 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammation has been expanded to include nonhereditary collagen-like diseases, idiopathic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. As more patients are reported to have clinical features of autoinflammation and autoimmunity, the boundary between these two pathologic ends is becoming blurred. An overview of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, PFAPA syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uveitis, pericarditis, Behçet’s disease, gout, Sjögren’s syndrome, interstitial lung diseases, and Still’s disease is presented to highlight the fundamental points that interleukin-1 displays in the cryptic interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems.
    Mediators of Inflammation 02/2015; 2015:1-21. DOI:10.1155/2015/194864 · 2.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There have been several guidelines on the management of gout over the last decade; however, inconsistencies between them create confusion for practitioners. This review highlights areas of agreement between guidelines and discusses data where disagreements exist. For acute gout, the guidelines agree that anti-inflammatory treatment should start as soon as possible, preferably within 24 hours. Older guidelines preferred NSAIDs or colchicine over steroids, but newer ones leave the choice of agent to the physician. For colchicine, all guidelines recommend using low dose. Intra-articular, oral or intramuscular steroids are all described as effective. For management of hyperuricemia, indications for initiating urate-lowering therapy (ULT) have become more inclusive over the years by requiring lower burden of disease severity or including patient comorbidities. Probenecid has fallen out of favour with most guidelines favouring allopurinol over febuxostat. Although there is a disagreement about timing of initiation for ULT, guidelines recommend treating to target of serum urate (sUA) less than 6 mg/dl, and less than 5 mg/dl for patients with more severe disease. Concurrent anti-inflammatory prophylaxis has gained strong support over the years. Most guidelines are in agreement with recommendations for management of gout and most changes have been directional and evolutionary.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To give an overview of current evidence for interleukin (IL)-1 blockade in the management of gout. Three IL-1 blockers are currently available for clinical use: anakinra, rilonacept and canakinumab. Recent studies have focused on drugs with a long half-life: rilonacept and canakinumab. For treatment of acute gouty arthritis, three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed efficacy of canakinumab with some safety concerns and one RCT failed to show efficacy of rilonacept. For prevention of gout flare when starting uric acid lowering therapy (ULT), four RCTs showed efficacy of rilonacept and one RCT showed efficacy of canakinumab. There is sufficient evidence supporting the use of IL-1 blockers for treatment of acute gouty arthritis or for prevention of gout flares when starting ULT in selected patients, with contraindications or intolerance to conventional therapy. More data are needed to assess safety and to specify their use in routine practice.
    Current Opinion in Rheumatology 03/2015; 27(2):156-63. DOI:10.1097/BOR.0000000000000143 · 5.07 Impact Factor