Article

Xanthomonas campestris diffusible factor is 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and is associated with xanthomonadin biosynthesis, cell viability, antioxidant activity, and systemic invasion.

Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Singapore.
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (Impact Factor: 4.46). 05/2011; 24(8):948-57. DOI: 10.1094/MPMI-02-11-0031
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris produces a membrane-bound yellow pigment called xanthomonadin. A diffusible factor (DF) has been reported to regulate xanthomonadin biosynthesis. In this study, DF was purified from bacterial culture supernatants using a combination of solvent extraction, flash chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses resolved the DF chemical structure as 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (3-HBA), which was further confirmed by synthetic 3-HBA. Significantly, bioassay and in silico analysis suggest that DF production is widely conserved in a range of bacterial species. Analysis of DF derivatives established the hydroxyl group and its position as the key structural features for the role of DF in xanthomonadin biosynthesis. In addition, we showed that DF is also associated with bacterial survival, H2O2 resistance, and systemic invasion. Furthermore, evidence was also presented that DF and diffusible signaling factor have overlapping functions in modulation of bacterial survival, H2O2 resistance, and virulence. Utilization of different mechanisms to modulate similar virulence traits may provide X. campestris pv. campestris with plasticity in response to various environmental cues.

1 Bookmark
 · 
134 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Small-molecule hormones are well known to play key roles in the plant immune signaling network that is activated upon pathogen perception. In contrast, little is known about whether phytohormones also directly influence microbial virulence, similar to what has been reported in animal systems.ResultsIn this paper, we tested the hypothesis that hormones fulfill dual roles in plant-microbe interactions by orchestrating host immune responses, on the one hand, and modulating microbial virulence traits, on the other. Employing the rice-Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) interaction as a model system, we show that Xoo uses the classic immune hormone salicylic acid (SA) as a trigger to activate its virulence-associated quorum sensing (QS) machinery. Despite repressing swimming motility, sodium salicylate (NaSA) induced production of the Diffusible Signal Factor (DSF) and Diffusible Factor (DF) QS signals, with resultant accumulation of xanthomonadin and extracellular polysaccharides. In contrast, abscisic acid (ABA), which favors infection by Xoo, had little impact on DF- and DSF-mediated QS, but promoted bacterial swimming via the LuxR solo protein OryR. Moreover, we found both DF and DSF to influence SA- and ABA-responsive gene expression in planta.Conclusions Together our findings indicate that the rice SA and ABA signaling pathways cross-communicate with the Xoo DF and DSF QS systems and underscore the importance of bidirectional interkingdom signaling in molding plant-microbe interactions.
    BMC Plant Biology 01/2015; 15(1):10. · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel xanthomonadin-dialkylresorcinol hybrid named arcuflavin was identified in Azoarcus sp. BH72 by a combination of feeding experiments, HPLC-MS and MALDI-MS and gene clusters encoding the biosynthesis of this non-isoprenoid aryl-polyene containing pigment are reported. A chorismate-utilizing enzyme from the XanB2-type producing 3- and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and an AMP-ligase encoded by these gene clusters were characterized, that might perform the first two steps of the polyene biosynthesis. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the already known or novel biosynthesis gene clusters involved in the biosynthesis of polyene containing pigments like arcuflavin, flexirubin and xanthomonadin revealed the presence of similar gene clusters in a wide range of bacterial taxa, suggesting that polyene and polyene-dialkylresorcinol pigments are more widespread than previously realized.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e90922. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lysobacter species are emerging as new sources of antibiotics. The regulation of these antibiotics is not well understood. Here, we identified a small molecule metabolite (LeDSF3) that regulates the biosynthesis of the antifungal antibiotic heat-stable antifungal factor (HSAF), a polycyclic tetramate macrolactam with a structure and mode of action distinct from the existing antifungal drugs. LeDSF3 was isolated from the culture broth of Lysobacter enzymogenes, and its chemical structure was established by NMR and MS. The purified compound induced green fluorescence in a reporter strain of Xanthomonas campestris, which contained a gfp gene under the control of a diffusible signaling factor (DSF)-inducible promoter. Exogenous addition of LeDSF3 in L. enzymogenes cultures significantly increased the HSAF yield, the transcription of HSAF biosynthetic genes, and the antifungal activity of the organism. The LeDSF3-regulated HSAF production is dependent on the two-component regulatory system RpfC/RpfG. Moreover, LeDSF3 upregulated the expression of the global regulator cAMP receptor-like protein (Clp). The disruption of clp led to no HSAF production. Together, the results show that LeDSF3 is a fatty acid-derived, diffusible signaling factor positively regulating HSAF biosynthesis and that the signaling is mediated by the RfpC/RpfG-Clp pathway. These findings may facilitate the antibiotic production through applied genetics and molecular biotechnology in Lysobacter, a group of ubiquitous yet underexplored microorganisms.
    Applied microbiology and biotechnology. 10/2014;

Full-text

Download
7 Downloads
Available from
Nov 3, 2014