The Directive of the Protein: How Does Cytochrome P450 Select the Mechanism of Dopamine Formation?

Institute of Chemistry and the Lise Meitner-Minerva Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem, Israel.
Journal of the American Chemical Society (Impact Factor: 11.44). 05/2011; 133(20):7977-84. DOI: 10.1021/ja201665x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dopamine can be generated from tyramine via arene hydroxylation catalyzed by a cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP2D6). Our quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) results reveal the decisive impact of the protein in selecting the 'best' reaction mechanism. Instead of the traditional Meisenheimer-complex mechanism, the study reveals a mechanism involving an initial hydrogen atom transfer from the phenolic hydroxyl group of the tyramine to the iron-oxo of the compound I (Cpd I), followed by a ring-π radical rebound that eventually leads to dopamine by keto-enol rearrangement. This mechanism is not viable in the gas phase since the O-H bond activation by Cpd I is endothermic and the process does not form a stable intermediate. By contrast, the in-protein reaction has a low barrier and is exothermic. It is shown that the local electric field of the protein environment serves as a template that stabilizes the intermediate of the H-abstraction step and thereby mediates the catalysis of dopamine formation at a lower energy cost. Furthermore, it is shown that external electric fields can either catalyze or inhibit the process depending on their directionality.

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