Emamectin benzoate (Affirm) is a novel insecticide with potent efficacy against many specie of lepidoptera which are damaging fruits and leaves of agricultural crops. The active ingredient belongs to the naturally derived chemical group of avermectine, causing paralysis of lepidoptera larvae due to the activation of chloride channel at nerves level. Affirm is acting mainly through ingestion, due to its mode of action and fast activity, it is effective at very low rates and on all instars stages. It has been developed for the use on pomefruits, stonefruits, grapes and a broda range of vegetables crops at a rate range of 1.5 to 3 g ai/100L. The product shows translaminar activity and rapid degradation on leaf surface; therefore the active ingredient breaks down in a very short time to sublethal doses for most beneficials organisms living on the vegetation. The short rentry time, generally 24 hours for beneficials and impollinators, makes Affirm compatible for IPM programme in orchards and greenhouses. Also the residue profile is very favourable, leading to a very low maximum residue level and short preharvest interval in all edible crops.
"It suppresses the muscle contraction leading to eventual paralysis by stimulating the release of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (Ishaaya et al., 2002). The insecticide is very active against H. armigera, S. exigua and T. absoluta (Liguori et al., 2010; López et al., 2010). Because insecticides will likely remain a major component of pest suppression, minimising the effects of insecticides on BCAs is important in successful integration of biological and chemical control methods . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aphidius colemani Viereck and Eretmocerus mundus Mercet are two of the most representative parasitoids used as biological control agents (BCAs) primarily against aphids and whiteflies, respectively. The macrocyclic lactone emamec-tin benzoate (4"-deoxy-4"-methylamino-4"-epiavermectin B1 benzoate), an insecticide derived from the avermectin family of natural products, is being developed for controlling lepidopteran pests on a range of vegetable and other crops in Europe. The objective of this study was to determine the level of compatibility of the insecticide emamectin benzoate with A. colemani and Er. mundus, which are used in greenhouse vegetable production in southeastern Spain. Trials were conducted under commercial greenhouses to assess the effect of 1-, 3-and 7-day-old residues of emamec-tin benzoate at the highest recommended concentration (14.25 mg L –1) on the population dynamics of the parasitoids. A. colemani, although released at higher rates than those commercially used, only reached low densities (less than 1 adult per plant), without significant differences among control plots and those treated with the compound. On the contrary, a natural infestation by native Er. mundus occurred and this trial can be considered as a direct-spray trial. Neither adult population nor parasitism on emamectin benzoate treated plots differed significantly from the control. Therefore, emamectin benzoate residues did not diminish A. colemani population densities if applied 1 day before the introduction of the arthropod (exposure to 1-day old residues). Similarly, emamectin benzoate was compatible with Er. mundus if a direct spray application was used on developed populations.
SPANISH JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH 08/2012; 10(3-10). DOI:10.5424/sjar/2012103-684-11 · 0.70 Impact Factor
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