The molecular basis of schizophrenia is poorly understood; however, different brain regions are believed to play distinct roles in disease symptomology. We have studied gene expression in the superior temporal cortex (Brodmann area 22; BA22), which may play a role in positive pathophysiology, and compared our results with data from the anterior prefrontal cortex (BA10), which shows evidence for a role in negative symptoms. Genome-wide mRNA expression was determined in the BA22 region in 23 schizophrenics and 19 controls and compared with a BA10 data set from the same subjects. After adjustments for confounding sources of variation, we carried out GeneGO pathway enrichment analysis in each region. Significant differences were seen in age-related transcriptional changes between the BA22 and the BA10 regions, 21.8% and 41.4% of disease-associated transcripts showing age association, respectively. After removing age associated changes from our data, we saw the highest enrichment in processes mediating cell adhesion, synaptic contact, cytoskeletal remodelling, and apoptosis in the BA22 region. For the BA10 region, we observed the strongest changes in reproductive signalling, tissue remodelling, and cell differentiation. Further exploratory analysis also identified potentially disease-relevant processes that were undetected in our more stringent primary analysis, including autophagy in the BA22 region and the amyloid process in the BA10 region. Collectively, our analysis suggests disruption of many common pathways and processes underpinning synaptic plasticity in both regions in schizophrenia, whereas individual regions emphasize changes in certain pathways that may help to highlight pathway-specific therapeutic opportunities to treat negative or positive symptoms of the disease.
"Fifteen publicly available microarray data sets were used in this study (Table
1): four data sets on the developing human cortices (GSE13564
), five on the schizophrenic cortices (GSE21138
, GSE53987, GSE21935
), two on developing mouse cortex or cells (GSE17806
), one on the medial frontal cortex (MFC) of the schizophrenia mouse model Shn-2 KO mice (GSE42775
), and two on the frontal cortices of rodents treated with antipsychotic drug (GSE45229
). Patient demographics have been previously described in detail
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Schizophrenia, a severe psychiatric disorder, has a lifetime prevalence of 1%. The exact mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unknown, though theories abound. Recent studies suggest that particular cell types and biological processes in the schizophrenic cortex have a pseudo-immature status in which the molecular properties partially resemble those in the normal immature brain. However, genome-wide gene expression patterns in the brains of patients with schizophrenia and those of normal infants have not been directly compared. Here, we show that the gene expression patterns in the schizophrenic prefrontal cortex (PFC) resemble those in the juvenile PFC.
We conducted a gene expression meta-analysis in which, using microarray data derived from different studies, altered expression patterns in the dorsolateral PFC (DLFC) of patients with schizophrenia were compared with those in the DLFC of developing normal human brains, revealing a striking similarity. The results were replicated in a second DLFC data set and a medial PFC (MFC) data set. We also found that about half of the genes representing the transcriptomic immaturity of the schizophrenic PFC were developmentally regulated in fast-spiking interneurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, to test whether medications, which often confound the results of postmortem analyses, affect on the juvenile-like gene expressions in the schizophrenic PFC, we compared the gene expression patterns showing transcriptomic immaturity in the schizophrenic PFC with those in the PFC of rodents treated with antipsychotic drugs. The results showed no apparent similarities between the two conditions, suggesting that the juvenile-like gene expression patterns observed in the schizophrenic PFC could not be accounted for by medication effects. Moreover, the developing human PFC showed a gene expression pattern similar to that of the PFC of naive Schnurri-2 knockout mice, an animal model of schizophrenia with good face and construct validity. This result also supports the idea that the transcriptomic immaturity of the schizophrenic PFC is not due to medication effects.
Collectively, our results provide evidence that pseudo-immaturity of the PFC resembling juvenile PFC may be an endophenotype of schizophrenia.
"The RNA samples were analyzed by Affymetrix GeneChip HG-U133 Plus2.0. We downloaded the microarray data (GSE21935) from the NCBI GEO database . This dataset consists of 19 control and 23 schizophrenia samples. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Schizophrenic patients show lower incidences of cancer, implicating schizophrenia may be a protective factor against cancer. To study the genetic correlation between the two diseases, a specific PPI network was constructed with candidate genes of both schizophrenia and hepatocellular carcinoma. The network, designated schizophrenia-hepatocellular carcinoma network (SHCN), was analysed and cliques were identified as potential functional modules or complexes. The findings were compared with information from pathway databases such as KEGG, Reactome, PID and ConsensusPathDB.
The functions of mediator genes from SHCN show immune system and cell cycle regulation have important roles in the eitology mechanism of schizophrenia. For example, the over-expressing schizophrenia candidate genes, SIRPB1, SYK and LCK, are responsible for signal transduction in cytokine production; immune responses involving IL-2 and TREM-1/DAP12 pathways are relevant for the etiology mechanism of schizophrenia. Novel treatments were proposed by searching the target genes of FDA approved drugs with genes in potential protein complexes and pathways. It was found that Vitamin A, retinoid acid and a few other immune response agents modulated by RARA and LCK genes may be potential treatments for both schizophrenia and hepatocellular carcinoma.
This is the first study showing specific mediator genes in the SHCN which may suppress tumors. We also show that the schizophrenic protein interactions and modulation with cancer implicates the importance of immune system for etiology of schizophrenia.
"Overall, we identified 49 differentially regulated genes in these cohorts that clustered into a relatively small number of functional groups that are associated with synaptic function via synaptic vesicle regulation, signal transduction or cytoskeletal dynamics. Subsequently, we compared the data from frontal and superior temporal cortex using GeneGo maps and GeneGo processes and showed over-representation of genes involved in cytoskeletal remodelling, neurodevelopment, cell adhesion, cellular signalling, and neurotransmission in both regions, consistent with a disruption of processes underpinning synaptic plasticity . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous microarray analysis of gene expression in frontal cortex showed differential expression of genes associated with synaptic function in schizophrenia compared to matched-controls in two independent cohorts. One of these genes validated in both cohorts, SLC30A3, which encodes the Zinc Transporter 3 (ZNT3), is localised to synaptic vesicles in glutamate synapses and known to be involved in cognitive function. In view of the robust depletion of SLC30A3 mRNA in two independent studies and the importance of this gene in cognitive function, we investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with schizophrenia could be detected in a UK case controlled schizophrenia cohort. Four SNPs were selected across this gene and genotyped in a cohort of cases and controls from East UK. We found significant associations with schizophrenia at the allelic (ORs: 1.51 to 1.57), genotype (ORs: 1.46 to 1.53) and haplotype level (P=2.15×10(-4)). These associations proved to be gender-specific with significant effects of allele (ORs: 1.74 to 2.11), genotype (ORs: 1.78 to 2.14) and haplotype (P=3.51×10(-5)) observed in female schizophrenia cases but not males, when split by gender. In conclusion, SNPs in SLC30A3 showed a gender-specific association with schizophrenia in this East UK cohort, which merits further investigation in other population samples.
European Psychiatry 07/2013; 29(3). DOI:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2013.05.007 · 3.44 Impact Factor
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