Indian hedgehog mutations causing brachydactyly type A1 impair Hedgehog signal transduction at multiple levels.
ABSTRACT Brachydactyly type A1 (BDA1), the first recorded Mendelian autosomal dominant disorder in humans, is characterized by a shortening or absence of the middle phalanges. Heterozygous missense mutations in the Indian Hedgehog (IHH) gene have been identified as a cause of BDA1; however, the biochemical consequences of these mutations are unclear. In this paper, we analyzed three BDA1 mutations (E95K, D100E, and E131K) in the N-terminal fragment of Indian Hedgehog (IhhN). Structural analysis showed that the E95K mutation changes a negatively charged area to a positively charged area in a calcium-binding groove, and that the D100E mutation changes the local tertiary structure. Furthermore, we showed that the E95K and D100E mutations led to a temperature-sensitive and calcium-dependent instability of IhhN, which might contribute to an enhanced intracellular degradation of the mutant proteins via the lysosome. Notably, all three mutations affected Hh binding to the receptor Patched1 (PTC1), reducing its capacity to induce cellular differentiation. We propose that these are common features of the mutations that cause BDA1, affecting the Hh tertiary structure, intracellular fate, binding to the receptor/partners, and binding to extracellular components. The combination of these features alters signaling capacity and range, but the impact is likely to be variable and mutation-dependent. The potential variation in the signaling range is characterized by an enhanced interaction with heparan sulfate for IHH with the E95K mutation, but not the E131K mutation. Taken together, our results suggest that these IHH mutations affect Hh signaling at multiple levels, causing abnormal bone development and abnormal digit formation.
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ABSTRACT: We have determined the structures of the glucose-6-phosphate (G6P)-inhibitable 100,000 Mr Type I hexokinase from rat and the G6P-sensitive 50,000 Mr hexokinase from Schistosoma mansoni at a resolution of 2.8 and 2.6 A respectively. The structures define the glucose and G6P binding sites in these enzymes, suggest the mechanisms of intradomain G6P inhibition and activity loss in the Type I hexokinase N-terminal half, and reveal the structure of the membrane targeting motif that integrates the Type I hexokinase into the outer mitochondrial membrane.Natural Structural Biology 08/1998; 5(7):555-60.