Site-directed mutagenesis of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 suggests three distinct pathways of nitroglycerin biotransformation.
ABSTRACT To elucidate the mechanism underlying reduction of nitroglycerin (GTN) to nitric oxide (NO) by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2), we generated mutants of the enzyme lacking the cysteines adjacent to reactive Cys302 (C301S and C303S), the glutamate that participates as a general base in aldehyde oxidation (E268Q) or combinations of these residues. The mutants were characterized regarding acetaldehyde dehydrogenation, GTN-triggered enzyme inactivation, GTN denitration, NO formation, and soluble guanylate cyclase activation. Lack of the cysteines did not affect dehydrogenase activity but impeded GTN denitration, aggravated GTN-induced enzyme inactivation, and increased NO formation. A triple mutant lacking the cysteines and Glu268 catalyzed sustained formation of superstoichiometric amounts of NO and exhibited slower rates of inactivation. These results suggest three alternative pathways for the reaction of ALDH2 with GTN, all involving formation of a thionitrate/sulfenyl nitrite intermediate at Cys302 as the initial step. In the first pathway, which predominates in the wild-type enzyme and reflects clearance-based GTN denitration, the thionitrate apparently reacts with one of the adjacent cysteine residues to yield nitrite and a protein disulfide. The predominant reaction catalyzed by the single and double cysteine mutants requires Glu268 and results in irreversible enzyme inactivation. Finally, combined lack of the cysteines and Glu268 shifts the reaction toward formation of the free NO radical, presumably through homolytic cleavage of the sulfenyl nitrite intermediate. Although the latter reaction accounts for less than 10% of total turnover of GTN metabolism catalyzed by wild-type ALDH2, it is most likely essential for vascular GTN bioactivation.
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ABSTRACT: Recombinant neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) expressed in Baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells contains approx. one equiv. of tightly bound tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) per dimer and binds a second equiv. with a dissociation constant in the 10-7-10-6 M range. Less is known about the pterin-binding properties of nNOS originating from expression systems like Escherichia coli that do not produce BH4. We determined the binding properties of E. coli-expressed nNOS for BH4 and several inhibitory pterins by monitoring their effects on enzyme activity. E. coli-expressed nNOS as isolated was activated by BH4 monophasically with EC50 ~ 2•10-7 M, demonstrating a lack of tight pterin binding. However, overnight incubation with BH4 resulted in tight binding of one BH4 per dimer, yielding an enzyme that resembled Sf9-expressed nNOS. Tight pterin binding was also induced by preincubation with 4-amino-tetrahydrobiopterin, but not by 7,8-dihydrobiopterin or 4-amino-dihydrobiopterin, suggesting that tight-binding site formation requires preincubation with a fully reduced pteridine. Kinetic experiments showed that tight-binding site formation takes approx. 10 min with 1 µM BH4 (2 min with 1 µM 4-amino-BH4) at 4° C. Anaerobic preincubation experiments demonstrated that O2 is not involved in the process. Gel electrophoretic studies suggest that tight-binding site formation is accompanied by an increase in the strength of the NOS dimer. We propose that incubation of pterin-free nNOS with BH4 creates one tight pterin-binding site per dimer, leaving the other site unaffected, in a reaction that involves redox chemistry.Biochemistry 02/2014; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The vascular bioactivation of the antianginal drug nitroglycerin (GTN), yielding 1,2-glycerol dinitrate and nitric oxide or a related activator of soluble guanylate cyclase, is catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) in rodent and human blood vessels. The essential role of ALDH2 has been confirmed in many studies and is considered as general principle of GTN-induced vasodilation in mammals. However, this view is challenged by an early report showing that diphenyleneiodonium, which we recently characterizTed as potent ALDH2 inhibitor, has no effect on GTN-induced relaxation of bovine coronary arteries (De La Lande et al., Eur. J. Pharmacol. 314:347-350, 1996). We investigated this issue and found that inhibition of ALDH2 attenuates GTN-induced coronary vasodilation in isolated perfused rat hearts but has no effect on relaxation to GTN of bovine and porcine coronary arteries. This observation is explained by low levels of ALDH2 protein expression in bovine coronary arteries and several types of porcine blood vessels. ALDH2 mRNA expression and the rates of GTN denitration were similarly low, excluding a significant contribution of ALDH2 to the bioactivation of GTN in these vessels. Attempts to identify the responsible pathway with enzyme inhibitors did not provide conclusive evidence for the involvement of ALDH3A1, cytochrome P450, or GSH-S-transferase. Thus, the present manuscript describes an hitherto unrecognized pathway of GTN bioactivation in bovine and porcine blood vessels. If present in the human vasculature, this pathway might contribute to the therapeutic effects of organic nitrates that are not metabolized by ALDH2.Biochemical Pharmacology. 01/2015; 218.
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ABSTRACT: Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) participate in multiple metabolic pathways and have been indicated to play a role in several cancerous disease states. Our laboratory is interested in developing novel and selective ALDH inhibitors. We looked to further work recently published by developing a class of isoenzyme selective inhibitors using a similar indole-2,3-diones that exhibit differential inhibition of ALDH1A1, ALDH2 and ALDH3A1. Kinetic and X-ray crystallography data suggest these inhibitors are competitive against aldehyde binding, forming direct interactions with active site cysteine residues. These compounds appear to interact directly with the catalytic nucleophile, Cys243, in ALDH3A1, but not so in ALDH2. In ALDH2, the 3-keto group is surrounded by the adjacent Cys301/303. Surprisingly, the orientation of the interaction changes depending on the nature of the substitutions on the basic indole ring structure and correlates well with the observed structure-activity relationships for each ALDH isoenzyme.Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 01/2014; · 5.48 Impact Factor