Late-life Depression: Evidence-based Treatment and Promising New Directions for Research and Clinical Practice
ABSTRACT As the population ages, successive cohorts of older adults will experience depressive disorders. Late-life depression (LLD) carries additional risk for suicide, medical comorbidity, disability, and family caregiving burden. Although response and remission rates to pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy are comparable with those in midlife depression, relapse rates are higher, underscoring the challenge to achieve and maintain wellness. This article reviews the evidence base for LLD treatment options and provides an analysis of treatment options for difficult-to-treat LLD variants (eg, psychotic depression, vascular depression). Treatment algorithms are also reviewed based on predictors of response and promising novel treatment options.
- SourceAvailable from: Ricardo E. Jorge[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Late-life depression (LLD) is a frequent complication of the ageing process, occurring in up to 5% of community-dwelling elderly and in a higher proportion of subjects with coexistent medical illnesses. Its presence has been consistently associated with cognitive impairment, greater disability and increased mortality. Approximately half of patients with LLD have evidence of subcortical ischaemic damage in prefrontal circuits revealed by MRI. This might constitute the biological substrate of the cardinal symptoms of depression and of executive dysfunction. An important proportion of patients with LLD do not achieve remission of their depressive symptoms in spite of adequate pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment. In addition, a group of LLD patients progress to further impairment and disability in the form of a dementing disorder. There is an imperative need to develop new treatment strategies for LLD. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are safe and efficacious interventions that might be used in combination with other therapeutic options to improve treatment outcomes. However, there are still questions regarding the optimal way in which rTMS and dTCS should be delivered as well as to the way in which we may identify the subjects who will benefit the most from these interventions.International Review of Psychiatry 10/2011; 23(5):437-44. DOI:10.3109/09540261.2011.633501 · 1.80 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This work aims to review the most recent developments in the treatment of mood disorders (major depression and bipolar disorder) in the elderly. In the last years, few new pharmacological interventions for mood disorders have been developed. Recent studies seek to provide alternative treatment strategies to achieve higher remission rates, including the association of antidepressants, mood stabilizers and psychotherapy and the treatment of specific clusters of symptoms, such as the adjunctive treatment of cognitive impairment with cholinesterase inhibitors. Also, recent studies have been assessing the potential of pharmacogenetic information in the prediction of treatment outcomes. These factors altogether are expected to help the development of personalized treatment strategies that may improve outcomes with fewer adverse effects.Current opinion in psychiatry 09/2011; 24(6):473-7. DOI:10.1097/YCO.0b013e32834bb9bd · 3.55 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: As the population ages, the economic and societal impacts of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders are expected to rise sharply. Like dementia, late-life depressive disorders are common and are linked to increased disability, high healthcare utilisation, cognitive decline and premature mortality. Considerable heterogeneity in the clinical presentation of major depression across the life cycle may reflect unique pathophysiological pathways to illness; differentiating those with earlier onset who have grown older (early-onset depression), from those with illness onset after the age of 50 or 60 years (late-onset depression). The last two decades have witnessed significant advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of early- and late-onset depression, and has shown that disturbances of fronto-subcortical functioning are implicated. New biomedical models extend well beyond perturbations of traditional monoamine systems to include altered neurotrophins, endocrinologic and immunologic system dysfunction, inflammatory processes and gene expression alterations. This more recent research has highlighted that a range of illness-specific, neurodegenerative and vascular factors appear to contribute to the various phenotypic presentations. This review highlights the major features of late-life depression, with specific reference to its associated aetiological, clinical, cognitive, neuroimaging, neuropathological, inflammatory and genetic correlates. Data examining the efficacy of pharmacological, non-pharmacological and novel treatments for depression are discussed. Ultimately, future research must aim to evaluate whether basic biomedical knowledge can be successfully translated into enhanced health outcomes via the implementation of early intervention paradigms.Progress in Neurobiology 05/2012; 98(1):99-143. DOI:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2012.05.009 · 10.30 Impact Factor