Effect of Acid- and Alkaline-Aided Extractions on Functional and Rheological Properties of Proteins Recovered from Mechanically Separated Turkey Meat (MSTM)

Dept. of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G2P5.
Journal of Food Science (Impact Factor: 1.79). 09/2010; 75(7):E477-86. DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01736.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Functional and rheological characteristics of acid- and alkali-extracted proteins from mechanically separated turkey meat (MSTM) have been investigated. Extractions were carried out at 4 pH values (2.5, 3.5, 10.5, and 11.5). The study demonstrated that alkali and acid extractions resulted in significant (P < 0.0001) decreases of cooking and water loss compared to raw MSTM; however, the cooking loss was found to be similar (P = 0.5699) among the different protein isolates. Proteins extracted at pH 10.5 showed the lowest (P = 0.0249) water loss. Emulsion and foaming properties were found to be slightly higher in alkali-extracted proteins compared to those for acid extractions. The myofibrillar protein fraction showed better ability to form and stabilize emulsions compared to sarcoplasmic proteins. Myofibrillar proteins also showed better foam expansion; however, foam volume stability was similar for both myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein fractions. Textural characteristics (hardness, chewiness, springiness, and cohesiveness) of recovered proteins were found to be unaffected (P > 0.05) by different extraction pH. The protein extracted at pH 3.5 formed a highly viscoelastic gel network as evidenced by storage modulus (G') values, whereas the gel formed from proteins extracted at pH 10.5 was found to be the weakest. The work also revealed that acid treatments were more effective for removal of total heme pigments from MSTM. Color characteristics of protein isolates were markedly improved compared to the initial material and tended to be better when subjected to acid extractions. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Mechanically separated meat is one of the cheapest sources of protein obtained by grinding meat and bones together and forcing the mixture through a perforated drum. The use of mechanically separated turkey meat (MSTM) for the production of further processed poultry products is limited due to its undesirable color and textural properties. Recovery of proteins from MSTM using pH shifting process will help the poultry processors to get better returns and also create opportunity to produce functional food ingredients.

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