Morbidity in HIV-1-infected individuals before and after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy: A longitudinal study of a population-based cohort in Uganda

Lawson Unit, Department of HIV/Genitourinary Medicine, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton, UK.
HIV Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.99). 04/2011; 12(9):553-61. DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2011.00923.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We compared morbidities in HIV-1-infected patients before and after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a rural Ugandan cohort followed from 1990 to 2008. ART was introduced in 2004.
Random-effects Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rates of World Health Organization (WHO) stage-defining diseases in HIV-infected individuals aged 13 years or older with known seroconversion dates, and in an age-stratified sample of HIV-negative individuals.
The most common morbid event was bacterial pneumonia, with an incidence of 7.4/100 person-years (pyr) among 309 HIV seroconverters and 1.3/100 pyr among 348 HIV-negative participants [hazard ratio (HR) 5.64; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.6-8.8]. Among seroconverters, the incidence of the acquisition of any WHO stage-defining disease rose from 14.4/100 pyr (95% CI 11.1-18.6) in 1990-1998 to 46.0/100 pyr (95% CI 37.7-56.0) in 1999-2003. Following the introduction of ART, the incidence among seroconverters declined to 36.4/100 pyr (95% CI 27.1-48.9) in 2004-2005 and to 28.3/100 pyr (95% CI 21.2-37.8) in 2006-2008. At the individual level, a higher rate of acquiring any WHO stage-defining disease was independently associated with lower CD4 cell count, longer duration of HIV infection and older age. In addition, individuals who had been on ART for longer than 12 months had a substantially lower rate of any WHO stage disease than those not yet on ART (adjusted HR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.6).
Morbidity in HIV-positive participants decreased following the introduction of ART, and this decline was more marked with increasing duration on ART. The benefits of decreased HIV-related morbidity from ART lend support to urgent efforts to ensure universal access to early diagnosis of HIV infection and to ART, especially in rural Africa.

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    • "The association of pneumonia and HIV infection is CD4 dependent with exponential increases in incidence with decreasing CD4.30 ART roll-out in many resource poor settings has reduced the incidence of pneumonia among HIV infected adults but anti-pneumococcal immunity is not fully restored by ART.31 32 It is therefore unsurprising that in HIV endemic areas, pneumonia remains the most common cause of inpatient admission as many people are only diagnosed as HIV infected at presentation with pneumonia and progression to AIDS remains common.33 Pneumonia outcomes among HIV infected people have been reported as similar to HIV uninfected patients given optimal therapy but patients with HIV often present with complex co-infections and co-morbidity.34 "
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    ABSTRACT: Pneumonia remains the leading cause of childhood mortality and the most common reason for adult hospitalisation in low and middle income countries, despite advances in preventative and management strategies. In the last decade, pneumonia mortality in children has fallen to approximately 1.3 million cases in 2011, with most deaths occurring in low income countries. Important recent advances include more widespread implementation of protein-polysaccharide conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenzae type B and Streptococcus pneumoniae, implementation of case-management algorithms and better prevention and treatment of HIV. Determining the aetiology of pneumonia is challenging in the absence of reliable diagnostic tests. High uptake of new bacterial conjugate vaccines may impact on pneumonia burden, aetiology and empiric therapy but implementation in immunisation programmes in many low and middle income countries remains an obstacle. Widespread implementation of currently effective preventative and management strategies for pneumonia remains challenging in many low and middle income countries.
    Thorax 08/2013; 68(11). DOI:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2013-204247 · 8.29 Impact Factor
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    • "ART coverage rates are thought to be very high, as HIV testing coverage is high in the rural population and treatment access is good. Local research studies have reported median CD4 cell counts of 100-150 per mm3 at initiation of ARV therapy [23,24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: In sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the health and functional status of older people who either themselves are HIV infected or are affected by HIV and AIDS in the family. This aim of this study was to describe health among older people in association with the HIV epidemic. The cross-sectional survey consisted of 510 participants aged 50 years and older, equally divided into five study groups including; 1) HIV infected and on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 1 year; 2) HIV infected and not yet eligible for ART; 3) older people who had lost a child due to HIV/AIDS; 4) older people who have an adult child with HIV/AIDS; 5) older people not known to be infected or affected by HIV in the family. The participants were randomly selected from ongoing studies in a rural and peri-urban area in Uganda. Data were collected using a WHO standard questionnaire and performance tests. Eight indicators of health and functioning were examined in an age-adjusted bivariate and multivariate analyses. In total, 198 men and 312 women participated. The overall mean age was 65.8 and 64.5 years for men and women respectively. Men had better self-reported health and functional status than women, as well as lower self-reported prevalence of chronic diseases. In general, health problems were common: 35% of respondents were diagnosed with at least one of the five chronic conditions, including 15% with depression, based on algorithms; 31% of men and 35% of women had measured hypertension; 25% of men and 21% of women had poor vision test results. HIV-positive older people, irrespective of being on ART, and HIV-negative older people in the other study groups had very similar results for most health status and functioning indicators. The main difference was a significantly lower BMI among HIV-infected older people. The systematic exploration of health and well being among older people, using eight self-reported and objective health indicators, showed that basic health problems are very common at older ages and poorly addressed by existing health services. HIV-infected older people, however, whether on ART or not yet on ART, had a similar health and functional status as other older people.
    BMC Public Health 11/2011; 11(1):886. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-886 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "All participants in the general population cohort are encouraged to learn their HIV status at local voluntary counselling and testing centres. Those who are found in the suvey to have HIV infection are offered referral to the study clinic [17], which introduced ART in 2004 [18]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Although concurrent sexual partnerships may play an important role in HIV transmission in Africa, the lack of an agreed definition of concurrency and of standard methodological approaches has hindered studies. In a long-standing general population cohort in rural Uganda we assessed the prevalence of concurrency and investigated its association with sociodemographic and behavioural factors and with HIV prevalence, using the new recommended standard definition and methodological approaches. As part of the 2010 annual cohort HIV serosurvey among adults, we used a structured questionnaire to collect information on sociodemographic and behavioural factors and to measure standard indicators of concurrency using the recommended method of obtaining sexual-partner histories. We used logistic regression to build a multivariable model of factors independently associated with concurrency. Among those eligible, 3,291 (66%) males and 4,052 (72%) females participated in the survey. Among currently married participants, 11% of men and 25% of women reported being in a polygynous union. Among those with a sexual partner in the past year, the proportion reporting at least one concurrent partnership was 17% in males and 0.5% in females. Polygyny accounted for a third of concurrency in men and was not associated with increased HIV risk. Among men there was no evidence of an association between concurrency and HIV prevalence (but too few women reported concurrency to assess this after adjusting for confounding). Regarding sociodemographic factors associated with concurrency, females were significantly more likely to be younger, unmarried, and of lower socioeconomic status than males. Behavioural factors associated with concurrency were young age at first sex, increasing lifetime partners, and a casual partner in the past year (among men and women) and problem drinking (only men). Our findings based on the new standard definition and methodological approaches provide a baseline for measuring changes in concurrency and HIV incidence in future surveys, and a benchmark for other studies. As campaigns are now widely conducted against concurrency, such surveys and studies are important in evaluating their effectiveness in decreasing HIV transmission.
    BMC Public Health 08/2011; 11(1):651. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-11-651 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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