Prevalence of achievement of A1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol (ABC) goal in veterans with diabetes

Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Pharmacy, Dallas, TX 75216, USA.
Journal of managed care pharmacy: JMCP (Impact Factor: 2.71). 05/2011; 17(4):304-12.
Source: PubMed


The "ABCs of Diabetes" are defined as hemoglobin A1c < 7.0%, blood pressure < 130/80 millimeters mercury (mm Hg), and lowdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) < 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg per dL). Assessments of 3-part goal attainment of A1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol have been reported using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for several time periods (e.g., 1988-1994, 1999-2000, 1999-2002, and 2003-2004), Look Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD, 2001-2004), and community-based endocrinology practice (CBEP, 2000-2004). In 2002, an unpublished analysis of data from 2001-2002 at the Iowa City Veterans Affairs (ICVA) Medical Center found less than 50% of patients met each of the 3 individual goals. In the 5 years following the 2001-2002 assessment, the care for veterans with diabetes at the ICVA was enhanced to include (a) an increased number of diabetes classes and clinics, (b) implementation of the diabetes Care Coordination/Home Telehealth (CCHT) program, and (c) clinical reminders for diabetes performance measures that were added to the electronic medical record (EMR).
To (a) describe the prevalence of veterans meeting the ABC goals of diabetes in 1 VA medical center; (b) differentiate the proportion of diabetes patients who met the individual targets for A1c, blood pressure, and LDL-C and compare the results for 2008 through September 2009 with the earlier data from this facility (2001-2002); and (c) examine results reported previously in the literature for NHANES, Look AHEAD, and CBEP data sources.
Single-center, retrospective analysis of veterans at the ICVA for dates of service from January 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009, who (a) filled at least 1 prescription for an antidiabetic medication and (b) had each of the 3 biomarker values recorded in the EMR for A1c, blood pressure, and LDL-C after the antidiabetic prescription fill date.
Of the 5,426 (97.6% male) patients meeting inclusion criteria in 2008-2009, 17.3% (n = 936) achieved the 3-part ABC goal. In this managed care setting, achievement of the 3-part ABC goal surpassed the proportions reported in previous studies in NHANES data (5.2% in 1988-1994, 7.3% in 1999-2000, 7.0% in 1999-2002, 13.2% in 2003-2004), and 10.1% in Look AHEAD 2001-2004, but fell short of the 22.0% reported in CBEP 2000- 2004. When compared with the 2001-2002 results at ICVA, the proportion of patients achieving the individual A1c goal in 2008-2009 increased by 10.8 percentage points (from 43.2% to 54.0%), 12.6 percentage points for blood pressure (from 29.2% to 41.8%), and 17.1 percentage points for LDL-C (from 49.5% to 66.6%, P < 0.001) for the 3 individual comparisons.
The proportion of patients achieving each of the 3 goals for A1c, blood pressure, and LDL-C improved significantly in 2008-2009 compared with the 2001-2002 assessment in this medical center, following implementation of yearly clinical reminders for diabetes care, enhanced patient education, and other program changes that included home-based telephone monitoring with diabetes case management for some patients. Achievement of the 3-part ABC goal in 2008-2009 (17.3%) surpassed 5 assessments reported in the literature but was lower than the CBEP (2000- 2004) performance (22.0%).

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    • "Many questions about the achievement of the ABC clinical targets of type 2 diabetes remain unanswered [7] [8] [9] [10]. For instance, most studies have been conducted in a single or small number of hospital-based clinics [11] [12], and the number of studies considering the effect of clinic type on achieving the ABC clinical outcomes is limited. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the achievement of clinical targets for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in general medical clinics (GMCs) and specialist diabetes clinics (SDCs) for different hospital types (regional, provincial and community) in Thailand. We used the medical records of patients (n=26,860) with T2DM from 595 hospitals (26 regional, 70 provincial and 499 community) across all 77 provinces in Thailand. Generalized linear mixed models were used to conduct multi-level modeling to evaluate the achievement of individual outcomes (A - glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) <7.0% (53mmol/mol), B - Blood Pressure (BP) <140/80mmHg and C - LDL-Cholesterol <100mg/dL) and aggregated outcomes (AllABC - achieved all three of the targets, AnyABC - achieved at least one target, ABCcount - the number of targets achieved: 0, 1, 2 or 3). Neither clinic types (SDCs or GMCs) were consistency superior across all hospital types. For regional hospitals, SDCs were associated with higher odds of achieving BP, AnyABC, and ABCcount (OR=1.55, 95%CI: 1.25-1.92, p<0.001; OR=1.35, 95%CI: 1.02-1.79; p=0.04; RR=1.10, 95%CI: 1.01-1.20, p=0.03, respectively). For provincial hospitals, SDCs exhibited higher achievement of BP and LDL-C (OR=1.52, 95%CI: 1.23-1.87, p<0.001; OR=1.28, 95%CI: 1.04-1.58, p=0.02, respectively). For community hospitals, however GMCs demonstrated higher achievement of BP and AnyABC (OR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.67-0.98, p=0.03; OR=0.74, 95%CI: 0.56-0.97, p=0.03, respectively). In larger (regional and provincial) hospitals, SDCs outperform GMCs in several (but not all) clinical targets. In contrast, in community hospital, where most patients with T2DM are serviced, GMCs were shown to have superior performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 02/2015; 108(2). DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2015.02.005 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    • "Just 27.4% of diabetic adults met the recommendations for blood pressure control in 1998. However, 47.9% of the individuals with diagnosed diabetes had achieved the recommended blood pressure target levels in 2010; this is a significant increase over a 12‐year period; and this achievement of blood pressure goal was similar to those of the USA survey from 29.0% (NHANES 1988–1994) to 50.4% (NHANES 2003–2004)20. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims/Introduction We investigated the prevalence, treatment and control of diagnosed diabetes in Korean adults from 1998 to 2010. Materials and Methods The Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare carried out the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in the years 1998 (I), 2001 (II), 2005 (III), 2007–2009 (IV) and 2010 (V). We estimated the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in Korean adults and the proportions of well‐controlled diabetes, as defined by having glycosylated hemoglobin <7.0%, blood pressure <130/80 mmHg and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol <100 mg/dL according to the American Diabetes Association. Results The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes increased significantly from 3.2% in 1998 to 6.4% in 2010 (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of adults with diagnosed diabetes achieving blood pressure and LDL cholesterol target levels increased from 23.8% to 54.2% (P < 0.0001), and 25.7% to 47.7% (P<0.0001), respectively. However, the percentage of patients achieving glycemic goals did not increase significantly from 42.5% to 49.1% (P = 0.3034). Furthermore, there were significant increases in the proportions of individuals achieving all three target levels, from 2.7% in 2005 to 8.7% in 2010 (P < 0.0001). Conclusions The prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in Korea increased significantly from 1998 to 2010. The percentages of those achieving all recommendations of the American Diabetes Association have increased, but are still not satisfactory.
    Journal of Diabetes Investigstion 09/2013; 4(5):460-5. DOI:10.1111/jdi.12077 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    • "The available evidence strongly supports the therapeutic benefits of intensive glycemic control in diabetes mellitus, although this is difficult to achieve and maintain, especially in insulin-treated patients.1–3 The new dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors have been widely accepted in the daily management of type 2 diabetes in view of their strategic advantages with regard to body weight, risk of hypoglycemia, and beta cell survival.4–7 "
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    Drug Design, Development and Therapy 02/2013; 7:99-104. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S38346 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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