How do prescription opioid users differ from users of heroin or other drugs in psychopathology: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
Journal of Addiction Medicine (Impact Factor: 1.71). 03/2011; 5(1):28-35. DOI: 10.1097/ADM.0b013e3181e0364e
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To study substance use and psychiatric disorders among prescription opioid users, heroin users, and non-opioid drug users in a national sample of adults.
Analyses of data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=43,093).
Four groups were identified among 9140 illicit or non-prescribed drug users: heroin-other opioid users (1.0%; used heroin and other opioids), other opioid-only users (19.8%; used other opioids but never heroin), heroin-only users (0.5%; used heroin but never other opioids), and non-opioid drug users (78.7%; used drugs but never heroin or other opioids). After adjusting for variations in socioeconomic characteristics, history of substance abuse treatment, and familial substance abuse, heroin-other opioid users had greater odds of several substance use disorders (cocaine, hallucinogen, sedative, amphetamine, and tranquilizer) as compared with the other groups; heroin-only users had reduced odds of sedative and tranquilizer use disorders as compared with other opioid-only users. Non-opioid drug users had reduced odds of all substance use disorders and other mental disorders (mood, anxiety, pathological gambling, and personality) as compared with other opioid-only users. Past-year other opioid-only users also reported slightly lower scores on quality of life than past-year non-opioid drug users.
All opioid use groups had higher rates of substance use disorders than non-opioid drug users, and these rates were particularly elevated among heroin-other opioid users. Findings suggest the need to distinguish between these four groups in research and treatment as they may have different natural histories and treatment needs.

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