This study was proposed to investigate the changes in the utilization of knee arthroscopy in an ambulatory setting over the past decade in the United States as well as its implications.
The National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery, last carried out in 1996, was conducted again in 2006 by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. We analyzed the cases with procedure coding indicative of knee arthroscopy or anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. To produce estimates for all arthroscopic procedures on the knee in an ambulatory setting in the United States for each year, we performed a design-based statistical analysis.
The number of arthroscopic procedures on the knee increased 49% between 1996 and 2006. While the number of arthroscopic procedures for knee injury had dramatically increased, arthroscopic procedures for knee osteoarthritis had decreased. In 1996, knee arthroscopies performed in freestanding ambulatory surgery centers comprised only 15% of all orthopaedic procedures, but the proportion increased to 51% in 2006. There was a large increase in knee arthroscopy among middle-aged patients regardless of sex. In 2006, >99% of arthroscopic procedures on the knee were in an outpatient setting. Approximately 984,607 arthroscopic procedures on the knee (95% confidence interval, 895,999 to 1,073,215) were performed in an outpatient setting in 2006. Among those, 127,446 procedures (95% confidence interval, 95,124 to 159,768) were for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Nearly 500,000 arthroscopic procedures were performed for medial or lateral meniscal tears.
This study revealed that the knee arthroscopy rate in the United States was more than twofold higher than in England or Ontario, Canada, in 2006. Our study found that nearly half of the knee arthroscopic procedures were performed for meniscal tears. Meniscal damage, detected by magnetic resonance imaging, is commonly assumed to be the source of pain and symptoms. Further study is imperative to better define the symptoms, physical findings, and radiographic findings that are predictive of successful arthroscopic treatment.
"ACL injuries are exceedingly common and often devastating to adolescents and young adults  . The high frequency of ACL injury (more than 120,000 in the United States annually ), associated cost, and subsequent long-term disability have generated significant interest in the investigation of ACL injury mechanisms. Extensive efforts have served to investigate knee biomechanics with a primary emphasis on the ACL utilizing ex vivo techniques        , clinical studies, and in vivo evaluations [2,12–18]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple computational models have been developed to study knee biomechanics. However, the majority of these models are mainly validated against a limited range of loading conditions and/or do not include sufficient details of the critical anatomical structures within the joint. Due to the multifactorial dynamic nature of knee injuries, anatomic finite element (FE) models validated against multiple factors under a broad range of loading conditions are necessary. This study presents a validated FE model of the lower extremity with an anatomically accurate representation of the knee joint. The model was validated against tibiofemoral kinematics, ligaments strain/force, and articular cartilage pressure data measured directly from static, quasi-static, and dynamic cadaveric experiments. Strong correlations were observed between model predictions and experimental data (r > 0.8 and p < 0.0005 for all comparisons). FE predictions showed low deviations (root-mean-square (RMS) error) from average experimental data under all modes of static and quasi-static loading, falling within 2.5 deg of tibiofemoral rotation, 1% of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) strains, 17 N of ACL load, and 1 mm of tibiofemoral center of pressure. Similarly, the FE model was able to accurately predict tibiofemoral kinematics and ACL and MCL strains during simulated bipedal landings (dynamic loading). In addition to minimal deviation from direct cadaveric measurements, all model predictions fell within 95% confidence intervals of the average experimental data. Agreement between model predictions and experimental data demonstrates the ability of the developed model to predict the kinematics of the human knee joint as well as the complex, nonuniform stress and strain fields that occur in biological soft tissue. Such a model will facilitate the in-depth understanding of a multitude of potential knee injury mechanisms with special emphasis on ACL injury.
"When patients undergoing partial or total menisectomy have been compared, the amount of tissue resected was demonstrated to be inversely related to knee function . Arthroscopic partial menisectomy (APM) remains the most common surgical intervention for meniscal pathology and the most common orthopaedic surgical procedure in the United States, with more than 465,000 people undergoing the procedure annually . Nevertheless, there is a paucity of data examining the efficacy of treatments available for meniscal tears. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whilst arthroscopic surgery for the treatment of meniscal tears is the most commonly performed orthopaedic surgery, meniscal tears at the knee are frequently identified on magnetic resonance imaging in adults with and without knee pain. The evidence for arthroscopic treatment of meniscal tears is controversial and lacks a supporting evidence base; it may be no more efficacious than conservative therapies. Surgical approaches to the treatment of meniscal pathology can be broadly categorised into those in which partial menisectomy or repair are performed. This review highlights that the major factor determining the choice of operative approach is age: meniscal repair is performed exclusively on younger populations, while older populations are subject to partial menisectomy procedures. This is probably because the meniscus is less amenable to repair in the older population where other degenerative changes co-exist. In middle-aged to older adults, arthroscopic partial menisectomy (APM) may treat the meniscus tear, but does not address the degenerative whole organ disease of knee osteoarthritis. Thus far, there is no convincing evidence that operative approaches are superior to conservative measures as the first-line treatment of older people with knee pain and meniscal tears. However, in two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) approximately one-third of subjects in the exercise groups had persisting knee pain with some evidence of improvement following APM, although the characteristics of this subgroup are unclear. From the available data, a first-line trial of conservative therapy, which includes weight loss, is recommended for the treatment of degenerative meniscal tears in older adults. The exception to this may be when mechanical symptoms, such as knee locking, predominate. Although requiring corroboration by RCTs, there is accumulating evidence from cohort studies and case series that meniscal repair rather than APM may improve function and reduce the long-term risk of knee osteoarthritis in young adults. There is no clear evidence from RCTs that one surgical method of meniscal repair is superior to another.
"By way of comparison, in 2006, meniscal procedures of the knee (excision of semilunar cartilage) were performed on an estimated 690,000 cases  on an ambulatory basis. In the same year, 984,607 knee arthroscopies were performed . Hence, the resources utilized by upper extremity procedures in the ambulatory setting are substantial and comparable to the most frequently performed orthopedic procedures in the ambulatory setting. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremity are common reasons for patients to seek care and undergo ambulatory. The objective of our study was to assess the overall and age-adjusted utilization rates of rotator cuff repair, shoulder arthroscopy performed for indications other than rotator cuff repair, carpal tunnel release, and wrist arthroscopy performed for indications other than carpal tunnel release in the United States. We also compared demographics, indications, and operating room time for these procedures.
We used the 2006 National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery to estimate the number of procedures of interest performed in the United States in 2006. We combined these data with population size estimates from the 2006 U.S. Census Bureau to calculate rates per 10,000 persons.
An estimated 272,148 (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 218,994, 325,302) rotator cuff repairs, 257,541 (95% CI = 185,268, 329,814) shoulder arthroscopies excluding those for cuff repairs, 576,924 (95% CI = 459,239, 694,609) carpal tunnel releases, and 25,250 (95% CI = 17,304, 33,196) wrist arthroscopies excluding those for carpal tunnel release were performed. Overall, carpal tunnel release had the highest utilization rate (37.3 per 10,000 persons in persons of age 45-64 years; 38.7 per 10,000 persons in 65-74 year olds, and; 44.2 per 10,000 persons in the age-group 75 years and older). Among those undergoing rotator cuff repairs, those in the age-group 65-74 had the highest utilization (28.3 per 10,000 persons). The most common indications for non-cuff repair related shoulder arthroscopy were impingement syndrome, periarthritis, bursitis, and instability/SLAP tears. Non-carpal tunnel release related wrist arthroscopy was most commonly performed for ligament sprains and diagnostic arthroscopies for pain and articular cartilage disorders.
Our data shows substantial age and demographic differences in the utilization of these commonly performed upper extremity ambulatory procedures. While over one million upper extremity procedures of interest were performed, evidence-based clinical indications for these procedures remain poorly defined.
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