Yeast 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) orthologs Pkh1-3 differentially regulate phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) and the protein kinase B (PKB)/S6K ortholog Sch9
ABSTRACT Pkh1, -2, and -3 are the yeast orthologs of mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). Although essential for viability, their functioning remains poorly understood. Sch9, the yeast protein kinase B and/or S6K ortholog, has been identified as one of their targets. We now have shown that in vitro interaction of Pkh1 and Sch9 depends on the hydrophobic PDK1-interacting fragment pocket in Pkh1 and requires the complementary hydrophobic motif in Sch9. We demonstrated that Pkh1 phosphorylates Sch9 both in vitro and in vivo on its PDK1 site and that this phosphorylation is essential for a wild type cell size. In vivo phosphorylation on this site disappeared during nitrogen deprivation and rapidly increased again upon nitrogen resupplementation. In addition, we have shown here for the first time that the PDK1 site in protein kinase A is phosphorylated by Pkh1 in vitro, that this phosphorylation is Pkh-dependent in vivo and occurs during or shortly after synthesis of the protein kinase A catalytic subunits. Mutagenesis of the PDK1 site in Tpk1 abolished binding of the regulatory subunit and cAMP dependence. As opposed to PDK1 site phosphorylation of Sch9, phosphorylation of the PDK1 site in Tpk1 was not regulated by nitrogen availability. These results bring new insight into the control and prevalence of PDK1 site phosphorylation in yeast by Pkh protein kinases.
- SourceAvailable from: Marta Rubio-Texeira
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "All rights reserved. catalytic Tpk1 subunit interferes with binding to the regulatory Bcy1 subunit and thus with cAMP-dependency (Voordeckers, et al., 2011, Haesendonckx, et al., 2012). This regulation establishes a link between sphingolipid signaling pathways and PKA. "
ABSTRACT: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been a favorite organism for pioneering studies on nutrient-sensing and signaling mechanisms. Many specific nutrient responses have been elucidated in great detail. This has led to important new concepts and insight into nutrient-controlled cellular regulation. Major highlights include the central role of the Snf1 protein kinase in the glucose repression pathway, galactose induction, the discovery of a G-protein coupled receptor system and role of Ras in glucose-induced cAMP signaling, the role of the protein synthesis initiation machinery in general control of nitrogen metabolism, the cyclin-controlled protein kinase Pho85 in phosphate regulation, nitrogen catabolite repression and the nitrogen-sensing TOR pathway, and the discovery of transporter-like proteins acting as nutrient sensors. In addition, a number of cellular targets, like carbohydrate stores, stress tolerance and ribosomal gene expression, are controlled by the presence of multiple nutrients. The PKA signaling pathway plays a major role in this general nutrient response. It has led to the discovery of nutrient transceptors (transporter-receptors) as nutrient sensors. Major shortcomings in our knowledge are the relationship between rapid and steady-state nutrient signaling, the role of metabolic intermediates in intracellular nutrient sensing and the identity of the nutrient sensors controlling cellular growth. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.FEMS microbiology reviews 02/2014; 38(2). DOI:10.1111/1574-6976.12065 · 13.81 Impact Factor
- "This is accompanied by a reduction of the REV1 DNA repair protein expression and of translesional synthesis. The phosphorylation of Sch9 is essential for a wild type cell size . The Sir2 deacetylase is a highly conserved gene, that modulates lifespan in yeast, worms, and flies and stress response in mammals. "
Article: Human height genes and cancer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Body development requires the ability to control cell proliferation and metabolism, together with selective 'invasive' cell migration for organogenesis. These requirements are shared with cancer. Human height-associated loci have been recently identified by genome-wide SNP-association studies. Strikingly, most of the more than 100 genes found associated to height appear linked to neoplastic growth, and impose a higher risk for cancer. Height-associated genes drive the HH/PTCH and BMP/TGFβ pathways, with p53, c-Myc, ERα, HNF4A and SMADs as central network nodes. Genetic analysis of body-size-affecting diseases and evidence from genetically-modified animals support this model. The finding that cancer is deeply linked to normal, body-plan master genes may profoundly affect current paradigms on tumor development.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2013; 2013. DOI:10.1016/j.bbcan.2013.02.002 · 4.66 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In the pathogen Candida albicans protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit is encoded by two genes TPK1 and TPK2 and the regulatory subunit by one gene, BCY1. PKA mediates several cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation and the yeast to hyphae transition, a key factor for C. albicans virulence. The catalytic isoforms Tpk1p and Tpk2p share redundant functions in vegetative growth and hyphal development, though they differentially regulate glycogen metabolism, the stress response pathway and pseudohyphal formation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae it was earlier reported that BCY1 overexpression not only increased the amount of TPK3 mRNA but also its catalytic activity. In C. albicans a significant decrease in Bcy1p expression levels was already observed in tpk2Δ null strains. In this work we showed that the upregulation in Bcy1p expression was observed in a set of strains having a TPK1 or TPK2 allele reintegrated in its own locus, as well as in strains expressing the TPKs under the control of the constitutive ACT1 promoter. To confirm the cross regulation event between Bcy1p and Tpkp expression we generated a mutant strain with the lowest PKA activity carrying one TPK1 and a unique BCY1 allele with the aim to obtain two derived strains in which BCY1 or TPK1 were placed under their own promoters inserted in the RPS10 neutral locus. We found that placing one copy of BCY1 upregulated the levels of Tpk1p and its catalytic activity; while TPK1 insertion led to an increase in BCY1 mRNA, Bcy1p and in a high cAMP binding activity. Our results suggest that C. albicans cells were able to compensate for the increased levels of either Tpk1p or Tpk2p subunits with a corresponding elevation of Bcy1 protein levels and vice versa, implying a tightly regulated mechanism to balance holoenzyme formation.Fungal Genetics and Biology 12/2011; 49(1):74-85. DOI:10.1016/j.fgb.2011.12.001 · 3.26 Impact Factor