Yeast 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) orthologs Pkh1-3 differentially regulate phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) and the protein kinase B (PKB)/S6K ortholog Sch9.
ABSTRACT Pkh1, -2, and -3 are the yeast orthologs of mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). Although essential for viability, their functioning remains poorly understood. Sch9, the yeast protein kinase B and/or S6K ortholog, has been identified as one of their targets. We now have shown that in vitro interaction of Pkh1 and Sch9 depends on the hydrophobic PDK1-interacting fragment pocket in Pkh1 and requires the complementary hydrophobic motif in Sch9. We demonstrated that Pkh1 phosphorylates Sch9 both in vitro and in vivo on its PDK1 site and that this phosphorylation is essential for a wild type cell size. In vivo phosphorylation on this site disappeared during nitrogen deprivation and rapidly increased again upon nitrogen resupplementation. In addition, we have shown here for the first time that the PDK1 site in protein kinase A is phosphorylated by Pkh1 in vitro, that this phosphorylation is Pkh-dependent in vivo and occurs during or shortly after synthesis of the protein kinase A catalytic subunits. Mutagenesis of the PDK1 site in Tpk1 abolished binding of the regulatory subunit and cAMP dependence. As opposed to PDK1 site phosphorylation of Sch9, phosphorylation of the PDK1 site in Tpk1 was not regulated by nitrogen availability. These results bring new insight into the control and prevalence of PDK1 site phosphorylation in yeast by Pkh protein kinases.
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ABSTRACT: Cell-size homeostasis entails a fundamental balance between growth and division. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae establishes this balance by enforcing growth to a critical cell size prior to cell cycle commitment (Start) in late G1 phase. Nutrients modulate the critical size threshold, such that cells are large in rich medium and small in poor medium. Here, we show that two potent negative regulators of Start, Sfp1 and Sch9, are activators of the ribosomal protein (RP) and ribosome biogenesis (Ribi) regulons, the transcriptional programs that dictate ribosome synthesis rate in accord with environmental and intracellular conditions. Sfp1 and Sch9 are required for carbon-source modulation of cell size and are regulated at the level of nuclear localization and abundance, respectively. Sfp1 nuclear concentration responds rapidly to nutrient and stress conditions and is regulated by the Ras/PKA and TOR signaling pathways. In turn, Sfp1 influences the nuclear localization of Fhl1 and Ifh1, which bind to RP gene promoters. Starvation or the absence of Sfp1 causes Fhl1 and Ifh1 to localize to nucleolar regions, concomitant with reduced RP gene transcription. These findings suggest that nutrient signals set the critical cell-size threshold via Sfp1 and Sch9-mediated control of ribosome biosynthetic rates.Genes & Development 11/2004; 18(20):2491-505. · 12.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Starvation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells for specific nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphate or sulphate causes arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle at a specific point called 'start'. Re-addition of different nitrogen sources, phosphate or sulphate to such starved cells causes activation of trehalase within a few minutes. Nitrogen-source- and sulphate-induced activation of trehalase were not associated with any change in the cAMP level, but in the case of phosphate there was a small transient increase. When nitrogen-source-activated trehalase was isolated by immuno-affinity chromatography from crude extracts, the purified enzyme showed the same activity profile as in the original crude extracts, indicating that post-translational modification is responsible for the activation. In the yeast mutants cdc25-5 and cdc35-10, which are temperature sensitive for cAMP synthesis, incubation at the restrictive temperature lowered but did not prevent nitrogen-, phosphate- or sulphate-induced activation of trehalase. Since under these conditions the cAMP level in the cells is very low, it is unlikely that cAMP acts as a second messenger in this nutrient-induced effect. Nitrogen-source-induced activation of trehalase requires the presence of glucose at a concentration similar to that able to stimulate the RAS-adenylate cyclase pathway. This indicates that the same glucose-sensing system might be involved in both phenomena. Nitrogen-starved cells fractionated according to cell size all showed nitrogen-source-induced activation of trehalase to the same extent, indicating that the nitrogen-induced signalling pathway involved is not dependent on the well-known cell size requirement for progression over the start point of the cell cycle.Journal of general microbiology 11/1992; 138(10):2035-43.
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ABSTRACT: Addition of a nitrogen source to yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cells starved for nitrogen on a glucose-containing medium triggers activation of protein kinase A (PKA) targets through a pathway that requires for sustained activation both a fermentable carbon source and a complete growth medium (fermentable growth medium induced or FGM pathway). Trehalase is activated, trehalose and glycogen content as well as heat resistance drop rapidly, STRE-controlled genes are repressed, and ribosomal protein genes are induced. We show that the rapid effect of amino acids on these targets specifically requires the general amino acid permease Gap1. In the gap1Delta strain, transport of high concentrations of l-citrulline occurs at a high rate but without activation of trehalase. Metabolism of the amino acids is not required. Point mutants in Gap1 with reduced or deficient transport also showed reduced or deficient signalling. However, two mutations, S391A and S397A, were identified with a differential effect on transport and signalling for l-glutamate and l-citrulline. Specific truncations of the C-terminus of Gap1 (e.g. last 14 or 26 amino acids) did not reduce transport activity but caused the same phenotype as in strains with constitutively high PKA activity also during growth with ammonium as sole nitrogen source. The overactive PKA phenotype was abolished by mutations in the Tpk1 or Tpk2 catalytic subunits. We conclude that Gap1 acts as an amino acid sensor for rapid activation of the FGM signalling pathway which controls the PKA targets, that transport through Gap1 is connected to signalling and that specific truncations of the C-terminus result in permanently activating Gap1 alleles.Molecular Microbiology 12/2003; 50(3):911-29. · 4.96 Impact Factor