Several clinical studies have shown low or no expression of GLUT1 in breast cancer patients, which may account for the low clinical specificity and sensitivity of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose ([18F]FDG) used in positron emission tomography (PET). Therefore, it has been proposed that other tumor characteristics such as the high expression of GLUT2 and GLUT5 in many breast tumors could be used to develop alternative strategies to detect breast cancer. Here we have studied the in vitro and in vivo radiopharmacological profile of 6-deoxy-6-[18F]fluoro-d-fructose (6-[18F]FDF) as a potential PET radiotracer to image GLUT5 expression in breast cancers.
"Primary PyMT cell-derived tumors also showed a comparable [ 18 F]FDG uptake pattern in vivo which confirms the results from the in vitro studies. In comparison to the murine EMT-6 mammary tumor model, tumors from MTHJ cells as well as primary PyMT cells reached very high SUV levels of almost 3 for [ 18 F]FDG after 60 min p.i.  . Small animal PET studies with EMT -6 tumors demonstrated standard uptake values for [ 18 F]FDG in the range of 0.9 to 2 after 60 min p.i.  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Positron emission tomography (PET) allows detection of functional changes in malignant tissue. Establishment of an immortalized immunocompetent breast cancer mouse model would provide a useful platform for the analysis of novel cancer treatment strategies. This study describes a comparative functional evaluation of murine breast cancer models established from polyoma virus middle T antigen (PyMT)-derived tumors using small animal PET imaging with [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FLT. Primary PyMT tumor-derived cells and a cell line derived from these tumors (MTHJ) were injected subcutaneously into immunocompetent FVB mice to generate breast cancer xenografts. Tumor growth rates were comparable in both models and tumors were analyzed after 4-5 weeks post-injection. [(18)F]FDG uptake in vitro followed a comparable trend in both models but reached higher uptake levels in primary PyMT cells vs. MTHJ cells after 120 min. At all time points, [(18)F]FLT uptake was significantly higher in MTHJ compared to primary PyMT cells. Dynamic small animal PET imaging with [(18)F]FDG revealed standardized uptake values (SUVs) of 2.5±0.1 (n=8) in tumors from primary cells and 2.8±0.4 (n=6) in MTHJ tumors after 60 min p.i.. The corresponding tumor-muscle-ratios were 9.3±1.5 and 10.4±0.9, respectively. Uptake of [(18)F]FLT resulted in slightly higher SUV(60min) in MTHJ tumors (1.1±0.1, n=6) compared to tumors from primary cells (SUV(60min)=0.9±0.05, n=8, p=0.07). The tumor-muscle-ratio was comparable in both tumors (2.1±0.2 and 1.8±0.1, respectively). The PET imaging data demonstrates that the functional profile of immunocompetent murine breast tumor model MTHJ remains the same as in primary-derived PyMT tumors in vivo. Metabolic and proliferative rates as assessed with [(18)F]FDG and [(18)F]FLT are comparable in both tumor models. The observed high SUV(60min) of 2.8±0.4 with [(18)F]FDG in MTHJ tumors allows one to monitor efficacy of therapeutic interventions connected with changes in metabolic response of the tumor by means of small animal PET.
American Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 11/2012; 2(1):88-98. · 3.25 Impact Factor
"A number of different tracers targeting diverse cellular biochemical mechanisms involved in breast cancer have been developed, synthesised, and tested in breast cancer xenograft models. Although an exhaustive list is well beyond the scope of this paper, it is worth citing a couple of very recent articles describing the use of sugar-like derivatives as alternatives to FDG for tumour imaging: a fluorine-18-labelled inositol derivative  and a fluorine-18-labelled fructose derivative used to image GLUT5 transporter . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecular imaging of breast cancer has undoubtedly permitted a substantial development of the overall diagnostic accuracy of this malignancy in the last years. Accurate tumour staging, design of individually suited therapies, response evaluation, early detection of recurrence and distant lesions have also evolved in parallel with the development of novel molecular imaging approaches. In this context, positron emission tomography (PET) can be probably seen as the most interesting molecular imaging technology with straightforward clinical application for such purposes. Dozens of radiotracers for PET imaging of breast cancer have been tested in laboratory animals. However, in this review we shall focus mainly in the smaller group of PET radiopharmaceuticals that have lead through into the clinical setting. PET imaging can be used to target general metabolic phenomena related to tumoural transformation, including glucose metabolism and cell proliferation, but can also be directed to specific hormone receptors that are characteristic of the breast cancer cell. Many other receptors and transport molecules present in the tumour cells could also be of interest for imaging. Furthermore, molecules related with the tumour microenvironment, tumour induced angiogenesis or even hypoxia could also be used as molecular biomarkers for breast cancer imaging.
Journal of Oncology 08/2012; 2012(4):710561. DOI:10.1155/2012/710561
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We recently showed that excessive fructose consumption, already associated with numerous metabolic abnormalities, reduces rates of intestinal Ca(2+) transport. Using a rat lactation model with increased Ca(2+) requirements, we tested the hypothesis that mechanisms underlying these inhibitory effects of fructose involve reductions in renal synthesis of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). Pregnant and virgin (control) rats were fed isocaloric fructose or, as controls, glucose, and starch diets from d 2 of gestation to the end of lactation. Compared to virgins, lactating dams fed glucose or starch had higher rates of intestinal transcellular Ca(2+) transport, elevated intestinal and renal expression of Ca(2+) channels, Ca(2+)-binding proteins, and CaATPases, as well as increased levels of 25-(OH)D(3) and 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3). Fructose consumption prevented almost all of these lactation-induced increases, and reduced vitamin D receptor binding to promoter regions of Ca(2+) channels and binding proteins. Changes in 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) level were tightly correlated with alterations in expression of 1α-hydroxylase but not with levels of parathyroid hormone and of 24-hydroxylase. Bone mineral density, content, and mechanical strength each decreased with lactation, but then fructose exacerbated these effects. When Ca(2+) requirements increase during lactation or similar physiologically challenging conditions, excessive fructose consumption may perturb Ca(2+) homeostasis because of fructose-induced reductions in synthesis of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3).
The FASEB Journal 02/2012; 26(2):707-21. DOI:10.1096/fj.11-190264 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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