Article

Differentiation of nitrous oxide emission factors for agricultural soils

Alterra, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Environmental Pollution (Impact Factor: 3.9). 04/2011; 159(11):3215-22. DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2011.04.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) direct soil emissions from agriculture are often estimated using the default IPCC emission factor (EF) of 1%. However, a large variation in EFs exists due to differences in environment, crops and management. We developed an approach to determine N(2)O EFs that depend on N-input sources and environmental factors. The starting point of the method was a monitoring study in which an EF of 1% was found. The conditions of this experiment were set as the reference from which the effects of 16 sources of N input, three soil types, two land-use types and annual precipitation on the N(2)O EF were estimated. The derived EF inference scheme performed on average better than the default IPCC EF. The use of differentiated EFs, including different regional conditions, allows accounting for the effects of more mitigation measures and offers European countries a possibility to use a Tier 2 approach.

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Article: Differentiation of nitrous oxide emission factors for agricultural soils

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    • "Differences in seasonal soil N 2 O emission across CRM treatments were expected, with changes in soil water content, soil temperature, and N rates. These are factors that influence soil N 2 O emissions through change in nitrification and denitrification process (Lesschen et al., 2011; Sainju et al., 2012; Al-Kaisi and Yin, 2005; Mosier et al., 2002). Differences in seasonal soil mineral N concentration, soil water content, and soil temperature were observed between two years (Figs. 2 and 3 "
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    ABSTRACT: In-field management practices of corn cob and residue mix (CRM) as a feedstock source for ethanol production can have potential effects on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of CRM piles, storage in-field, and subsequent removal on soil CO2 and N2O emissions. The study was conducted in 2010–2012 at the Iowa State University, Agronomy Research Farm located near Ames, Iowa (42.0°′N; 93.8°′W). The soil type at the site is Canisteo silty clay loam (fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, calcareous, mesic Typic Endoaquolls). The treatments for CRM consisted of control (no CRM applied and no residue removed after harvest), early spring complete removal (CR) of CRM after application of 7.5 cm depth of CRM in the fall, 2.5 cm, and 7.5 cm depth of CRM over two tillage systems of no-till (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) and three N rates (0, 180, and 270 kg N ha−1) of 32% liquid UAN (NH4NO3) in a randomized complete block design with split–split arrangements. The findings of the study suggest that soil CO2 and N2O emissions were affected by tillage, CRM treatments, and N rates. Most N2O and CO2 emissions peaks occurred as soil moisture or temperature increased with increase precipitation or air temperature. However, soil CO2 emissions were increased as the CRM amount increased. On the other hand, soil N2O emissions increased with high level of CRM as N rate increased. Also, it was observed that NT with 7.5 cm CRM produced higher CO2 emissions in drought condition as compared to CT. Additionally, no differences in N2O emissions were observed due to tillage system. In general, dry soil conditions caused a reduction in both CO2 and N2O emissions across all tillage, CRM treatments, and N rates.
    Applied Soil Ecology 05/2015; 89. DOI:10.1016/j.apsoil.2015.01.007 · 2.21 Impact Factor
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    • "The combined use of ammonium (NH + 4 )-based fertilizers and nitrification inhibitors can effectively alleviate the two main environmental problems associated with nitrogen fertilization, namely water pollution caused by nitrate leaching and gaseous emissions of nitrogenous compounds. As such, the use of NH + 4 has been proposed as a good alternative to nitrate-based fertilizers (Lesschen et al., 2011). Once nitrogen has been taken up and assimilated, it is transported throughout the plant as glutamine, asparagine, glutamate, aspartate , NO "
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    ABSTRACT: Genome scale metabolic modelling has traditionally been used to explore metabolism of individual cells or tissues. In higher organisms, the metabolism of individual tissues and organs is coordinated for the overall growth and well-being of the organism. Understanding the dependencies and rationale for multicellular metabolism is far from trivial. Here, we have advanced the use of AraGEM (a genome-scale reconstruction of Arabidopsis metabolism) in a multi-tissue context to understand how plants grow utilizing their leaf, stem and root systems across the day-night (diurnal) cycle. Six tissue compartments were created, each with their own distinct set of metabolic capabilities, and hence a reliance on other compartments for support. We used the multi-tissue framework to explore differences in the ‘division-of-labour’ between the sources and sink tissues in response to: (a) the energy demand for the translocation of C and N species in between tissues; and (b) the use of two distinct nitrogen sources (NO3- or NH4+). The ‘division-of-labour’ between compartments was investigated using a minimum energy (photon) objective function. Random sampling of the solution space was used to explore the flux distributions under different scenarios as well as to identify highly coupled reaction sets in different tissues and organelles. Efficient identification of these sets was achieved by casting this problem as a maximum clique enumeration problem. The framework also enabled assessing the impact of energetic constraints in resource (redox and ATP) allocation between leaf, stem and root tissues required for efficient carbon and nitrogen assimilation, including the diurnal cycle constraint forcing the plant to set aside resources during the day and defer metabolic processes that are more efficiently performed at night. This study is a first step towards autonomous modelling of whole plant metabolism.
    Frontiers in Plant Science 01/2015; 6(4). DOI:10.3389/fpls.2015.00004 · 3.95 Impact Factor
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    • "N 2 O emission also increases with higher clay content of the soil, because the possibility of anaerobic conditions increases (Velthof & Oenema, 1995). Lesschen et al. (2011) reported the emission factor for the type of soil: 0.86%, 1.24% and 2.61% for sand, clay and peat soils. Furthermore, there is also interference due to the land use as reported in Table 13. "
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    ABSTRACT: The industrialized agro-ecosystem is formed by technological and environmental subsystems, interacting strictly among one another to guarantee high quantitative and qualitative productivity requested by the market. Efficient management, at the moment, requires a large useof fossil fuels that often severely affect the environmental subsystem. Therefore, the agro-ecosystem produces a high environmental impact, both at the local and the global scale. Mineral nitrogen fertilization represents one of the main agricultural practices with a high emission of pollutants in the atmosphere, soil and water. This practice is necessary to guarantee high crop yields in spite of soil nitrogen depletion, which is linked to the progressive degradation of the soil organic matter. The environmental loading of nitrogen mineral fertilizers is due to the activities of the technological subsystem (production, transport, application), to the alteration of some soil microbial processes and to the excess supply not absorbed by the cultivated crops. The present chapter will review the environmental impact of nitrogen fertilization by analyzing the effects caused by the interactions of the technological and environmental subsystems. The environmental loads associated with the technological subsystem will be described by means of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The Life Cycle Assessment is a method which is able to quantify the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product, process, or activity throughout its entire cycle of life: from extraction of raw materials, through production, use and maintenance, to decommissioning at the end of life. The procedure is in accordance with the ISO 14040 and ILCD Handbook. Moreover, the main environmental effects of the nitrogen fertilizers application on soil environmental subsystems will be described. In detail, the state of art of the effect of nitrogen application on soil microbial activities, responsible for the production of atmospheric pollutants (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen compounds) and nitrogen dispersion in water bodies, will be presented. Mitigation strategies for both sub-systems suitable for reducing the environmental impact in the use of nitrogen fertilizers will be also reported.
    Fertilizers: Components, Uses in Agriculture and Environmental Impacts, First edited by Fernando Lòpez-Valdez, Fabiàn Fernàndez Luqueno, 07/2014: chapter 1: pages 3-43; NOVA Science Publishers., ISBN: 978-1-63321-058-5 (e-book)
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