Cytotoxicity of monocrotaline in isolated rat hepatocytes: effects of dithiothreitol and fructose.
ABSTRACT Monocrotaline (MCT) is a pyrrolizidine alkaloid present in plants of the Crotalaria species that causes cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, including hepatotoxicity in animals and humans. It is metabolized by cytochrome P-450 in the liver to the alkylating agent dehydromonocrotaline (DHM). In previous studies using isolated rat liver mitochondria, we observed that DHM, but not MCT, inhibited the activity of respiratory chain complex I and stimulated the mitochondrial permeability transition with the consequent release of cytochrome c. In this study, we evaluated the effects of MCT and DHM on isolated rat hepatocytes. DHM, but not MCT, caused inhibition of the NADH-linked mitochondrial respiration. When hepatocytes of rats pre-treated with dexamethasone were incubated with MCT (5 mM), they showed ALT leakage, impaired ATP production and decreased levels of intracellular reduced glutathione and protein thiols. In addition, MCT caused cellular death by apoptosis. The addition of fructose or dithiotreitol to the isolated rat hepatocyte suspension containing MCT prevented the ATP depletion and/or glutathione or thiol oxidation and decreased the ALT leakage and apoptosis. These results suggest that the toxic effect of MCT on hepatocytes may be caused by metabolite-induced mitochondrial energetic impairment, together with a decrease of cellular glutathione and protein thiols.
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ABSTRACT: Abamectin (ABA), which belongs to the family of avermectins, is used as a parasiticide; however, ABA poisoning can impair liver function. In a previous study using isolated rat liver mitochondria, we observed that ABA inhibited the activity of adenine nucleotide translocator and F(o)F(1)-ATPase. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism of ABA toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes and to evaluate whether this effect is dependent on its metabolism. The toxicity of ABA was assessed by monitoring oxygen consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular ATP concentration, cell viability, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, release of cytochrome c, caspase 3 activity and necrotic cell death. ABA reduces cellular respiration in cells energized with glutamate and malate or succinate. The hepatocytes that were previously incubated with proadifen, a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, are more sensitive to the compound as observed by a rapid decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential accompanied by reductions in ATP concentration and cell viability and a disruption of intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis followed by necrosis. Our results indicate that ABA biotransformation reduces its toxicity, and its toxic action is related to the inhibition of mitochondrial activity, which leads to decreased synthesis of ATP followed by cell death.Toxicology in Vitro 11/2012; · 2.65 Impact Factor