Risk of recurrent high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia after successful treatment: a long-term multi-cohort study.
ABSTRACT 15% of women treated for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN grade 2 or 3) develop residual or recurrent CIN grade 2 or 3 or cervical cancer, most of which are diagnosed within 2 years of treatment. To gain more insight into the long-term predictive value of different post-treatment strategies, we assessed the long-term cumulative risk of post-treatment CIN grade 2 or 3 or cancer and different follow-up algorithms to identify women at risk of residual or recurrent disease.
Women who were included in three studies in the Netherlands and who were treated for CIN grade 2 or 3 between July, 1988, and November, 2004, were followed up by cytology and testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) at 6, 12, and 24 months after treatment, and subsequently received cytological screening every 5 years. The primary endpoint was the cumulative risk of post-treatment CIN grade 2 or higher by December, 2009. We also assessed the cumulative risk of CIN grade 2 or higher in women with three consecutive negative cytological smears and women with negative co-testing with cytology and hrHPV at months 6 and 24. This study is registered in the Dutch trial register, NTR1468.
435 women were included, 76 (17%) of whom developed post-treatment CIN grade 2 or higher, of which 39 were CIN grade 3 or higher. The 5-year risk of developing post-treatment CIN grade 2 or higher was 16·5% (95% CI 13·0-20·7) and the 10-year risk was 18·3% (13·8-24·0). The 5-year risk of developing post-treatment CIN grade 3 or higher was 8·6% (95% CI 6·0-12·1) and the 10-year risk was 9·2% (5·8-14·2). Women with three consecutive negative cytological smears had a CIN grade 2 or higher risk of 2·9% (95% CI 1·2-7·1) in the next 5 years and of 5·2% (2·1-12·4) in the next 10 years. The 5-year risk of CIN grade 3 or higher was 0·7% (95% CI 0·0-3·9) and the 10-year risk was 0·7% (0·0-6·3). Women with negative results for co-testing had a 5-year risk of CIN grade 2 or higher of 1·0% (95% CI 0·2-4·6) and a 10-year risk of 3·6% (1·1-10·7). The 5-year risk of CIN grade 3 or higher was 0·0% (95% CI 0·0-3·0) and the 10-year risk was 0·0% (0·0-5·3).
The 5-year risk of post-treatment CIN grade 2 or higher in women with three consecutive negative cytological smears or negative co-testing for cytology and hrHPV at 6 and 24 months was similar to that of women with normal cytology in population-based screening and therefore justifies their return to regular screening.
VU University Medical Center, Erasmus University Medical Center, Netherlands.
- Developmental Biology 08/2011; 356(1):220-221. DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2011.05.356 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate testing for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) E6/E7 mRNA transcripts 6 months after conisation for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+) to determine the risk of residual CIN2+. We prospectively followed 344 women treated for CIN2+ by conisation. HR HPV mRNA testing (PreTect HPV-Proofer, NorChip®), HR HPV DNA testing (AMPLICOR HPV Test, Roche Diagnostics®) and cytology was performed at 6 and 12 months after conisation. Biopsies were taken within 18 months of conisation if indicated by abnormal cytology, abnormal colposcopy, or positive HPV test. The LINEAR ARRAY HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics®) was used to genotype cases with histologically confirmed residual disease diagnosed within 18 months after conisation. 6.4% (22/344) of study women had detected residual CIN2+. They were significantly older than those without residual CIN2+ (43.2 and 37.2 years respectively, p<0.001). Among women with detected residual CIN2+, 54.5% (12/22) had positive resection margins, 63.6% (14/22) had abnormal cytology, and 95.5% (21/22) had a positive HR HPV DNA test at 6 months. Sensitivity of HR HPV mRNA testing was 45.5% (95% confidence interval: 26.8-65.5%) at 6 months to predict detected residual CIN2+. Eight of 12 women who were HR HPV mRNA-negative at 6 months were HR HPV DNA-positive for one of the HPV types included in the mRNA test. Detection of E6/E7 mRNA transcripts by PreTect HPV Proofer does not seem suitable for short-term follow-up to detect residual CIN2+ after conisation.Gynecologic Oncology 08/2011; 123(2):257-62. DOI:10.1016/j.ygyno.2011.07.032 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Currently, women treated for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2/3) are followed-up by cytology to monitor them for residual and recurrent (post-treatment) disease. This systematic review and meta-analysis determine the test performance of testing for high-risk types of the human papillomavirus (hrHPV), cytology and co-testing (combined hrHPV testing and cytology) in predicting high-grade post-treatment disease (CIN2+). Studies that compared at least two of three post-treatment surveillance methods, and were published between January 2003 and May 2011, were identified through a bibliographic database search (PubMed, Embase.com and Wiley/Cochrane Library). Identification of relevant studies was conducted independently by two reviewers with a multi-step process. The reference standard used to diagnose post-treatment disease was histologically confirmed CIN2+. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratios and relative sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each study. Pooled estimates were calculated using a random effects model if heterogeneity among studies was significant, otherwise by using a fixed effects model. Estimates were reported with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Out of 2410 potentially relevant citations, 8 publications, incorporating 1513 treated women, were included. Pooled sensitivities were 0.79 (95%CI 0.72-0.85) for cytology, 0.92 (0.87-0.96) for hrHPV testing, and 0.95 (0.91-0.98) for co-testing. HrHPV testing was more sensitive than cytology to predict post-treatment CIN2+ (relative sensitivity 1.15; 95%CI 1.06-1.25). Pooled specificities were 0.81 (95%CI 0.74-0.86) for cytology, 0.76 (0.67-0.84) for hrHPV testing and 0.67 (0.60-0.74) for co-testing. HrHPV testing and cytology had a similar specificity (relative specificity 0.95, 95%CI 0.88-1.02). This review indicates that the hrHPV test should be included in post-treatment testing 6months after treatment, because hrHPV testing has a higher sensitivity than cytology in detecting high-grade post-treatment disease and has a similar specificity.Gynecologic Oncology 01/2012; 125(2):500-7. DOI:10.1016/j.ygyno.2012.01.015 · 3.69 Impact Factor