Growth hormone-releasing hormone: not only a neurohormone.
ABSTRACT Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) is mostly thought to act by stimulating the production and release of growth hormone from the pituitary. However, this neuropeptide emerges as a rather pleiotropic hormone in view of the identification of various extrapituitary sources for GHRH production, as well as the demonstration of a direct action of GHRH on several tissues other than the pituitary. Non-pituitary GHRH has a wide spectrum of activity, exemplified by its ability to modulate cell proliferation, especially in malignant tissues, to regulate differentiation of some cell types, and to promote healing of skin wounds. These findings extend the role of GHRH and its analogs beyond its accepted regulation of somatotropic activity and indicate new possibilities for therapeutic intervention.
- SourceAvailable from: Alexander Dimitrievich Verin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Antibiotic treatment of patients infected with G(-) or G(+) bacteria promotes release of the toxins lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and pneumolysin (PLY) in their lungs. Growth Hormone-releasing Hormone (GHRH) agonist JI-34 protects human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HL-MVEC), expressing splice variant 1 (SV-1) of the receptor, from PLY-induced barrier dysfunction. We investigated whether JI-34 also blunts LPS-induced hyperpermeability. Since GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) signaling can potentially stimulate both cAMP-dependent barrier-protective pathways as well as barrier-disruptive protein kinase C pathways, we studied their interaction in GHRH agonist-treated HL-MVEC, in the presence of PLY, by means of siRNA-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) depletion.Frontiers in physiology. 01/2014; 5:259.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) is an important trace mineral that, due to deficiencies in the soil in many parts of the USA, must be supplemented directly to the diet of foraging cattle. Both organic and inorganic forms of dietary Se supplements are available and commonly used, and it is known that Se form affects tissue assimilation, bioavailability, and physiological responses. However, little is known about the effects of form of dietary Se supplements on gene expression profiles, which ostensibly account for Se form-dependent physiological processes. To determine if hepatic transcriptomes of growing beef (Angus-cross) heifers (0.5 kg gain/day) was altered by form of dietary supplemental Se, none (Control), or 3 mg Se/day as inorganic Se (ISe, sodium selenite), organic (OSe, Sel-Plex®), or a blend of ISe and OSe (1.5 mg:1.5 mg, Mix) Se was fed for 168 days, and the RNA expression profiles from biopsied liver tissues was compared by microarray analysis. The relative abundance of 139 RNA transcripts was affected by Se treatment, with 86 of these with complete gene annotations. Statistical and bioinformatic analysis of the annotated RNA transcripts revealed clear differences among the four Se treatment groups in their hepatic expression profiles, including (1) solely and commonly affected transcripts; (2) Control and OSe profiles being more similar than Mix and ISe treatments; (3) distinct OSe-, Mix-, and ISe-Se treatment-induced "phenotypes" that possessed both common and unique predicted physiological capacities; and (4) expression of three microRNAs were uniquely sensitive to OSe, ISe, or Mix treatments, including increased capacity for redox potential induced by OSe and Mix Se treatments resulting from decreased expression of MiR2300b messenger RNA. These findings indicate that the form of supplemental dietary Se consumed by cattle will affect the composition of liver transcriptomes resulting, presumably, in different physiological capacities.Biological trace element research. 07/2014;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Nobel Prize Prize in Physiology or Medicine was first awarded in 1901. Since then, the Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine, Chemistry, and Physics have been awarded to at least 33 distinguished researchers who were directly or indirectly involved in research into the field of endocrinology. This paper reflects on the life histories, careers and achievements of 11 of them: Frederick G. Banting, Roger Guillemin, Philip S. Hench, Bernardo A. Houssay, Edward C. Kendall, E. Theodor Kocher, John J.R. Macleod, Tadeus Reichstein, Andrew V Schally, Earl W. Sutherland, Jr and Rosalyn Yalow. All were eminent scientists, distinguished lecturers and winners of many prizes and awards.Endocrine connections. 07/2014;