Comparison of the toxic effects of two duncecap larkspur (Delphinium occidentale) chemotypes in mice and cattle.
ABSTRACT To compare the toxic effects of a Delphinium occidentale chemotype containing N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL)-type alkaloids and a D occidentale chemotype lacking MSAL-type alkaloids in mice and cattle.
225 male Swiss Webster mice and 11 Black Angus steers.
4 collections of larkspur containing MSAL-type alkaloids and 4 collections of larkspur lacking MSAL-type alkaloids were used. From each collection, total alkaloid extracts (0.05 to 0.20 mL) were administered via tail-vein injection in 27 to 29 mice. Dried, finely ground plant material from 1 collection with and 1 collection without MSAL-type alkaloids (doses equivalent to 37.6 mg of total alkaloids/kg) were each administered to 8 cattle via oral gavage in a crossover experiment; 3 cattle received a single dose equivalent to 150.4 mg of total alkaloids/kg (no MSAL-type alkaloids). In mice, clinical effects were monitored; in cattle, heart rate was monitored before (baseline) and 24 hours after treatment. At the 24-hour time point, cattle were exercised as a measure of muscle weakness.
In mice, mean LD(50) associated with alkaloid extracts prepared from plants that did or did not contain MSAL-type alkaloids was 2.3 and 54.2 mg/kg, respectively. In cattle at 24 hours after treatment, plant material containing MSAL-type alkaloids significantly increased heart rate from baseline and was associated with exercise-induced collapse; plant material lacking MSAL-type alkaloids had no similar effects.
Taxonomic classification of D occidentale alone was not a good indicator of the toxic risk to grazing cattle.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cattle are poisoned by N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine type (MSAL-type) and 7,8-methylenedioxylycoctonine type (MDL-type) norditerpenoid alkaloids in Delphinium spp. Alkaloids in D. glaucescens are primarily of the MSAL-type, while D. barbeyi is a mixture of MSAL and MDL-types. The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the toxicokinetics of selected alkaloids from D. glaucescens and D. barbeyi in cattle. The two species of larkspur were dosed to three groups of Angus steers via oral gavage at doses of 8 mg kg⁻¹ MSAL-type alkaloids for D. barbeyi and either 8.0 or 17.0 mg kg⁻¹ MSAL-type alkaloids for D. glaucescens. In cattle dosed with D. barbeyi, serum deltaline (MDL-type) concentrations peaked at 488 ± 272 ng ml⁻¹ at 3 h and serum methyllycaconitine (MSAL-type) concentrations peaked at 831 ± 369 ng ml⁻¹ at 6 h. Deltaline was not detected in the serum of cattle dosed with D. glaucescens. Serum methyllycaconitine concentrations peaked at 497 ± 164 ng ml⁻¹ at 18 h, and 1089 ± 649 ng ml⁻¹ at 24 h for the 8 mg kg⁻¹ and 17 mg kg⁻¹ doses of D. glaucescens respectively. There were significant differences between the maximum serum concentrations and the area under the curve for the two doses of D. glaucescens but not D. barbeyi. Results from this experiment support the recommendation that approximately 7 days are required to clear 99% of the toxic alkaloids from the serum of animals orally dosed with D. barbeyi or D. glaucescens, and that MDL-type alkaloids play an important role in the toxicity of Delphinium spp. in cattle.Journal of Applied Toxicology 01/2011; 31(1):20-6. DOI:10.1002/jat.1563 · 3.17 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Delphinium spp. contain numerous norditerpenoid alkaloids which are structurally delineated as 7, 8-methylenedioxylycoctonine (MDL) and N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL)-type alkaloids. The toxicity of many tall larkspur species has been primarily attributed to their increased concentration of MSAL-type alkaloids, such as methyllycaconitine (MLA), which are typically 20 times more toxic than MDL-type alkaloids. However, the less toxic MDL-type alkaloids are often more abundant than MSAL-type alkaloids in most Delphinium barbeyi and Delphinium occidentale populations. Previous research demonstrated that MDL-type alkaloids increase the acute toxicity of MSAL-type alkaloids. In this study, we examined the role of MDL-type alkaloids on the overall toxicity of tall larkspur plants to cattle while controlling for the exact dose of MSAL-type alkaloids. Cattle were dosed with plant material from 2 different populations of tall larkspur containing either almost exclusively MDL- or MSAL-type alkaloids. These 2 plant populations were combined to create mixtures with ratios of 0.3:1, 1:1, 5:1, and 10:1 MDL- to MSAL-type alkaloids. The dose that elicited similar clinical signs of poisoning in mice and cattle was determined for each mixture on the basis of the MSAL-type alkaloid content. As the ratio of MDL- to MSAL-type alkaloids increased, the amount of MSAL-type alkaloids required to elicit clinical signs decreased. These results indicate that the less toxic MDL-type alkaloids in tall larkspur exacerbate the toxicity of the MSAL-type alkaloids. Consequently, both the amount of MSAL-type alkaloids and the amount of total alkaloids should be fully characterized to determine more accurately the relative toxicity of tall larkspur plant material.Journal of Animal Science 01/2012; 90(7):2394-401. DOI:10.2527/jas.2011-4560 · 1.92 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To determine the toxicokinetics of N-(methylsuccinimido)anthranoyllycoctonine-type low larkspur alkaloids in beef cattle. 5 Black Angus steers and 35 Swiss Webster mice. -Low larkspur (Delphinium andersonii) was collected, dried, ground, and administered to 5 steers via oral gavage to provide a dose of 12 mg of N-(methylsuccinimido)-anthranoyllycoctonine alkaloids/kg. Steers were housed in metabolism crates for 96 hours following larkspur administration; heart rate was monitored continuously, and blood samples were collected periodically for analysis of serum concentrations of 16-deacetylgeyerline, methyllycaconitine, geyerline, and nudicauline and assessment of kinetic parameters. The LD(50) of a total alkaloid extract from D andersonii was determined in Swiss Webster mice. -The alkaloids were quickly absorbed, with a maximum serum concentration achieved within 18 hours after administration. Geyerline and nudicauline coeluted as 1 peak and were considered together for toxicokinetic analysis. Mean ± SD elimination half-life was 18.4 ± 4.4 hours, 15.6 ± 1.5 hours, and 16.5 ± 5.1 hours for 16-deacetylgeyerline, methyllycaconitine, and geyerline and nudicauline, respectively. There were significant differences in maximum serum concentration, amount absorbed, and distribution half-life among the 4 alkaloids. The mouse LD(50) was 9.8 mg/kg. -Results suggested that clinical poisoning was likely to be most severe approximately 18 hours after exposure. Cattle should be closely monitored for at least 36 hours after initial exposure. Additionally, a withdrawal time of approximately 7 days would be required to clear > 99% of the toxic alkaloids from the serum of cattle that have ingested low larkspur.American Journal of Veterinary Research 08/2012; 73(8):1318-24. DOI:10.2460/ajvr.73.8.1318 · 1.21 Impact Factor