Predictors of long-term weight loss in adults with modest initial weight loss, by sex and race.
ABSTRACT Effective weight management interventions could reduce race-sex disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet little is known about factors associated with successful weight loss maintenance in race-sex subgroups. In the Weight Loss Maintenance trial (WLM), overweight/obese (BMI 25-45 kg/m(2)) adults who lost ≥4 kg in a 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention (phase I) were randomized into one of three 30-month maintenance interventions (phase II). To investigate predictors in subgroups, randomized groups were combined for this analysis. Of 1,685 phase I participants, 1,032 (61%) entered phase II, including 12% black men (BM), 26% black women (BW), 25% white men (WM), and 37% white women (WW). Weight change over the 36-month study ranged from -2.3% (95% confidence interval = -3.1 to -1.5%) in BW to -4.5% (95% confidence interval = -5.7 to -4.0%) in WM, the result of differential weight loss during phase I. Within race, men lost significantly more weight than women, but within sex group, weight loss did not differ significantly between races. Although participants regained weight during phase II, regain did not differ by race-sex group, and mean weight at the end of the study was significantly lower than phase I entry weight for each subgroup. In regression models, phase I weight loss predicted overall 36-month weight loss in all race-sex groups. Healthy dietary pattern at entry, improvement in dietary pattern, or both were predictive in three of four race-sex groups. Few other variables other than initial weight loss and dietary pattern were predictive. Future research should identify additional modifiable influences on long-term maintenance after a modest weight loss.
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ABSTRACT: Although trials of lifestyle interventions generally focus on cardiovascular disease risk factors rather than hard clinical outcomes, 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk can be estimated from the Framingham risk equations. Our objectives were to study the effect of 2 multicomponent lifestyle interventions on estimated CHD risk relative to advice alone and to evaluate whether differences can be observed in the effects of the lifestyle interventions among subgroups defined by baseline variables. A total of 810 healthy adults with untreated prehypertension or stage I hypertension were randomized to 1 of 3 intervention groups: An "advice-only" group, an "established" group that used established lifestyle recommendations for blood pressure control (sodium reduction, weight loss, and increased physical activity), or an "established-plus-DASH" group that combined established lifestyle recommendations with the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet. The primary outcome was 10-year CHD risk, estimated from follow-up data collected at 6 months. A secondary outcome was 10-year CHD risk at 18 months. Of the 810 participants, 62% were women and 34% were black. Mean age was 50 years, mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 135/85 mm Hg, and median baseline Framingham risk was 1.9%. The relative risk ratio comparing 6-month to baseline Framingham risk was 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.91, P<0.001) in the established group and 0.88 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 0.94, P<0.001) in the established-plus-DASH group relative to advice alone. Results were virtually identical in sensitivity analyses, in each major subgroup, and at 18 months. The observed reductions of 12% to 14% in estimated CHD risk are substantial and, if achieved, should have important public health benefits.Circulation 04/2009; 119(15):2026-31. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Reduced intake of saturated fat is widely recommended for prevention of cardiovascular disease. The type of macronutrient that should replace saturated fat remains uncertain. To compare the effects of 3 healthful diets, each with reduced saturated fat intake, on blood pressure and serum lipids. Randomized, 3-period, crossover feeding study (April 2003 to June 2005) conducted in Baltimore, Md, and Boston, Mass. Participants were 164 adults with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension. Each feeding period lasted 6 weeks and body weight was kept constant. A diet rich in carbohydrates; a diet rich in protein, about half from plant sources; and a diet rich in unsaturated fat, predominantly monounsaturated fat. Systolic blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and estimated coronary heart disease risk were lower on each diet compared with baseline. Compared with the carbohydrate diet, the protein diet further decreased mean systolic blood pressure by 1.4 mm Hg (P = .002) and by 3.5 mm Hg (P = .006) among those with hypertension and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 3.3 mg/dL (0.09 mmol/L; P = .01), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 1.3 mg/dL (0.03 mmol/L; P = .02), and triglycerides by 15.7 mg/dL (0.18 mmol/L; P<.001). Compared with the carbohydrate diet, the unsaturated fat diet decreased systolic blood pressure by 1.3 mm Hg (P = .005) and by 2.9 mm Hg among those with hypertension (P = .02), had no significant effect on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 1.1 mg/dL (0.03 mmol/L; P = .03), and lowered triglycerides by 9.6 mg/dL (0.11 mmol/L; P = .02). Compared with the carbohydrate diet, estimated 10-year coronary heart disease risk was lower and similar on the protein and unsaturated fat diets. In the setting of a healthful diet, partial substitution of carbohydrate with either protein or monounsaturated fat can further lower blood pressure, improve lipid levels, and reduce estimated cardiovascular risk. Clinical Trials Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00051350.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 11/2005; 294(19):2455-64. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Somatization is prevalent in primary care and is associated with substantial functional impairment and healthcare utilization. However, instruments for identifying and monitoring somatic symptoms are few in number and not widely used. Therefore, we examined the validity of a brief measure of the severity of somatic symptoms. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is a self-administered version of the PRIME-MD diagnostic instrument for common mental disorders. The PHQ-15 comprises 15 somatic symptoms from the PHQ, each symptom scored from 0 ("not bothered at all") to 2 ("bothered a lot"). The PHQ-15 was administered to 6000 patients in eight general internal medicine and family practice clinics and seven obstetrics-gynecology clinics. Outcomes included functional status as assessed by the 20-item Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-20), self-reported sick days and clinic visits, and symptom-related difficulty. As PHQ-15 somatic symptom severity increased, there was a substantial stepwise decrement in functional status on all six SF-20 subscales. Also, symptom-related difficulty, sick days, and healthcare utilization increased. PHQ-15 scores of 5, 10, 15, represented cutoff points for low, medium, and high somatic symptom severity, respectively. Somatic and depressive symptom severity had differential effects on outcomes. Results were similar in the primary care and obstetrics-gynecology samples. The PHQ-15 is a brief, self-administered questionnaire that may be useful in screening for somatization and in monitoring somatic symptom severity in clinical practice and research.Psychosomatic Medicine 64(2):258-66. · 4.08 Impact Factor