B-Cell Stimulatory Cytokines and Markers of Immune Activation Are Elevated Several Years Prior to the Diagnosis of Systemic AIDS-Associated Non-Hodgkin B-Cell Lymphoma
ABSTRACT The risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is greatly increased in HIV infection. The aim of this study was to determine whether elevated serum levels of molecules associated with B-cell activation precede the diagnosis of AIDS-associated NHL (AIDS-NHL).
Serum levels of B-cell activation-associated molecules, interleukin (IL)6, IL10, soluble CD23 (sCD23), sCD27, sCD30, C-reactive protein (CRP), and immunoglobulin E were determined in 179 NHL cases and HIV+ controls in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, collected at up to 3 time points per subject, 0 to 5 years prior to AIDS-NHL diagnosis.
Serum IL6, IL10, CRP, sCD23, sCD27, and sCD30 levels were all significantly elevated in the AIDS-NHL group, when compared with HIV+ controls or with AIDS controls, after adjusting for CD4 T-cell number. Elevated serum levels of B-cell activation-associated molecules were seen to be associated with the development of systemic [non-CNS (central nervous system)] NHL, but not with the development of primary CNS lymphoma.
Levels of certain B-cell stimulatory cytokines and molecules associated with immune activation are elevated for several years preceding the diagnosis of systemic AIDS-NHL. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that chronic B-cell activation contributes to the development of these hematologic malignancies.
Marked differences in serum levels of several molecules are seen for several years prediagnosis in those who eventually develop AIDS-NHL. Some of these molecules may serve as candidate biomarkers and provide valuable information to better define the etiology of NHL.
SourceAvailable from: Alessandro Allegra[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence indicates that a dysregulated immune system, as the one found in allergic disorders, can affect survival of tumor cells. A possible association between allergies and risk of hematologic malignancies has been examined in several epidemiological studies, however, results were not always consistent. The aim of this review is to report the preclinical and clinical data, which support a correlation between allergy and hematologic neoplasms. Immune system modulation could represent a powerful tool in the prevention and treatment of hematologic malignancies.Leukemia Research 10/2014; 38(10). DOI:10.1016/j.leukres.2014.08.004 · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous herpes virus that infects 90% of humans by adulthood, is linked to the development of various cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma, gastric cancer, Burkitt lymphoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and Hodgkin lymphoma. We reviewed the literature published since 1980 regarding an association between antibodies against EBV proteins and the risk of EBV-associated malignancies. Immunoglobulin A antibody levels that are elevated before diagnosis have consistently been associated with the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and patients with Hodgkin lymphoma have significantly higher immunoglobulin G antibody levels than disease-free controls. However, the link between the immune response to EBV and other EBV-associated malignancies was less clear. Although evidence of an association between the risk of Burkitt lymphoma and immunoglobulin G antibodies was consistent for available studies, the sample sizes were limited. Evidence for a link between antibodies against EBV and risk of either gastric cancer or NHL was inconsistent. Future investigations should account for tumor EBV status because only 7%-10% of gastric tumors and select NHL subtypes are related to EBV infection. Comparing differences in the associations between the humoral immune response to EBV and disease risk across cancers may help elucidate how this ubiquitous virus contributes to distinct tumors globally.American Journal of Epidemiology 08/2014; 180(7). DOI:10.1093/aje/kwu176 · 4.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Current pathogenetic aspects on HIV infection highlight the importance of a chronic immune activation ultimately leading to T lymphocyte homeostasis disruption and immune deregulation associated with disease manifestations and progression. It is widely accepted that this continuous immune activation in HIV infection is principally driven by the phenomenon of pathological microbial translocation (MT).Infection 07/2014; 42(6). DOI:10.1007/s15010-014-0666-5 · 2.86 Impact Factor