GSK3β genetic variability in patients with Multiple Sclerosis.
ABSTRACT Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3β) is a ubiquitous kinase that is part of multiple signaling pathways. It has neurotrophic/neuroprotective effects by mediating the actions of neurotrophic molecules in the brain, thus providing neuroprotection through modulation of energy metabolism. Notably, it has been demonstrated that GSK3β is involved in Wnt-beta-catenin signaling, which contributes to the inhibition of myelination and remyelination processes in mammals. Three-hundred nineteen patients with MS and 294 age-matched controls were genotyped by allelic discrimination for four common GSK3β variants (rs2199503, rs9826659, rs334558 and rs6438552) tagging about 100% of GSK-3β variability. A statistically significant increased frequency of the rs334558 GG genotype was observed in patients as compared with controls (25.4% versus 17.7%, P=0.02; OR:1.58, 95%CI: 1.07-2.34). Stratifying MS patients according to the disease subtype, a statistically significant difference of rs334558 GG frequency was found between Relapsing Remitting (RR), but not Primary Progressive or Secondary MS, and controls (27.0% versus 17.7%, P=0.01; OR: 1.72, 95%CI: 1.13-2.61). GSK3β rs334558 is a susceptibility factor for MS. As it is located in the promoter region, a possible explanatory mechanism could be an influence of the variant on the gene transcription rate.
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ABSTRACT: Wnt signaling is required for neurogenesis, the fate of neural progenitors, the formation of neuronal circuits during development, neuron positioning and polarization, axon and dendrite development and finally for synaptogenesis. This signaling pathway is also implicated in the generation and differentiation of glial cells. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of action of Wnt signaling pathways and their implication in the development and correct functioning of the nervous system. We also illustrate how a dysregulated Wnt pathway could lead to psychiatric, neurodegenerative and demyelinating pathologies. Lithium, used for the treatment of bipolar disease, inhibits GSK3β, a central enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Thus, lithium could, to some extent, mimic Wnt pathway. We highlight the possible dialogue between lithium therapy and modulation of Wnt pathway in the treatment of the diseases of the nervous system.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 06/2013; · 5.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). It is characterized by infiltration of autoreactive immune cells into the CNS, which target the myelin sheath leading to loss of neuronal function. While it is accepted that MS is a multifactorial disorder with both genetic and environmental factors influencing its development and course, the molecular pathogenesis of MS has not yet been fully elucidated. Here we studied the longitudinal gene expression profiles of whole blood RNA from a cohort of 195 MS patients and 66 healthy controls. We analyzed these transcriptomes at both the individual transcript and the biological pathway level. We found 62 transcripts to be significantly upregulated in MS patients; the expression of 11 of these genes was counter-regulated by interferon treatment, suggesting partial restoration of a 'healthy' gene expression profile. Global pathway analyses linked the proteasome and Wnt signaling to MS disease processes. Since genotypes from a subset of individuals were available, we were able to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), a number of which involved two genes of the MS gene signature. However, all these eQTL were also present in healthy controls. This study highlights the challenge posed by analyzing transcripts from whole blood and how these can be mitigated by using large, well-characterized cohorts of patients with longitudinal follow up and multi-modality measurements.Human Molecular Genetics 06/2013; · 7.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myelination is critical to normal functioning of the vertebrate nervous system. In demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis, oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells in the central nervous system, are targeted, resulting in myelin loss, axonal damage, and severe functional impairment. While spontaneous remyelination has been proven a failure in multiple sclerosis, understanding the molecular mechanism underlying oligodendrocyte biology, myelination, and remyelination becomes crucial. To date, a series of signaling pathways in regulating oligodendrocyte development and remyelination have been suggested and, among them, the Wnt/β-catenin/Tcf pathway has been considered a negative factor in the myelinating process. However, this notion has been challenged by recent studies, which showed a pro-myelinating effect of this pathway. This review summarizes the current contradictory concepts concerning the role of the Wnt pathway in the oligodendrocyte development and remyelination process, attempts to address the potential mechanism underlying this controversy, and recommends caution in targeting the Wnt pathway as a potential demyelinating therapy.Molecular Neurobiology 11/2013; · 5.47 Impact Factor