Sarcopenia: An Undiagnosed Condition in Older Adults. Current Consensus Definition: Prevalence, Etiology, and Consequences. International Working Group on Sarcopenia

Nutrition, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association (Impact Factor: 4.78). 05/2011; 12(4):249-56. DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2011.01.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sarcopenia, the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, has considerable societal consequences for the development of frailty, disability, and health care planning. A group of geriatricians and scientists from academia and industry met in Rome, Italy, on November 18, 2009, to arrive at a consensus definition of sarcopenia. The current consensus definition was approved unanimously by the meeting participants and is as follows: Sarcopenia is defined as the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. The causes of sarcopenia are multifactorial and can include disuse, altered endocrine function, chronic diseases, inflammation, insulin resistance, and nutritional deficiencies. Although cachexia may be a component of sarcopenia, the 2 conditions are not the same. The diagnosis of sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with observed declines in physical function, strength, or overall health. Sarcopenia should specifically be considered in patients who are bedridden, cannot independently rise from a chair, or who have a measured gait speed less that 1 m/s(-1). Patients who meet these criteria should further undergo body composition assessment using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry with sarcopenia being defined using currently validated definitions. A diagnosis of sarcopenia is consistent with a gait speed of less than 1 m·s(-1) and an objectively measured low muscle mass (eg, appendicular mass relative to ht(2) that is ≤ 7.23 kg/m(2) in men and ≤ 5.67 kg/m(2) in women). Sarcopenia is a highly prevalent condition in older persons that leads to disability, hospitalization, and death.

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    ABSTRACT: Sarcopenia likely comprises muscle fiber denervation and re-innervation, resulting in clustering of muscle fibers of the same type (classified by myosin heavy chain isoform composition). Development of methodology to quantitatively evaluate clustering of muscle fibers according to fiber type is necessary. Fiber type specific immunofluorescence histology was used to quantify fiber clustering in murine diaphragm muscle (n=15) at age 6 and 24 months. With age, fiber type clustering is evidenced by fiber type specific changes in distances between fibers, specifically a 14% decrease to the closest fiber for type I and 24% increase for type IIx and/or IIb fibers (P<0.001). Additionally, a 34% increase to the 3 closest type IIx and/or IIb fibers was found (P<0.001). This novel method of analyzing fiber type clustering may be useful in examining pathophysiological conditions of motor unit loss in neuromuscular disorders, myopathies, dystrophies, injuries, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Muscle & Nerve 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/mus.24641 · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Muscle mass and function are gradually lost in age-related, degenerative neuromuscular disorders, which also reflect the clinical hallmarks of sarcopenia. The consensus definition of sarcopenia includes a condition of age-related loss of muscle mass, quality, and strength. The most common acquired muscle disease affecting adults aged over 50 years is sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM). Besides inflammatory effects and immune-mediated muscle injury, degenerative myofiber changes are characteristic features of the disease. Although the earliest triggering events in sIBM remain elusive, a plethora of downstream mechanisms are implicated in the pathophysiology of muscle wasting. Although it remains controversial whether hereditary forms of inclusion body myopathy (IBM) may be considered as degenerative sIBM disease models, partial pathophysiological aspects can mimic the much more frequent sporadic condition, in particular the occurrence of inclusion bodies in skeletal muscle. Various clinical aspects in genetically determined skeletal muscle disorders reflect age-related alterations observed in sarcopenia. Several intriguing clues from monogenic defects in heritable IBMs contributing to the molecular basis of muscle loss will be discussed with special emphasis on inclusion body myopathy with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD) and GNE myopathy. Finally, also the recently identified dominant multisystem proteinopathy will be considered, which may rarely present as IBM.
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 02/2015; 7:13. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2015.00013 · 2.84 Impact Factor


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Jun 5, 2014