Perioperative hyperglycemia and postoperative infection after lower limb arthroplasty.
ABSTRACT One of the most serious complications after major orthopedic surgery is deep wound or periprosthetic joint infection. Various risk factors for infection after hip and knee replacement surgery have been reported, including patients' comorbidities and surgical technique factors. We investigated whether hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with infection that requires surgical intervention after total hip and knee arthroplasty.
We reviewed our computerized database for elective primary total hip and knee arthroplasty from 2000 to 2008. Demographic information, past medical history of patients, perioperative biochemistry, and postoperative complications were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: infected group (101 patients who had surgical intervention for infection at our institution within 2 years after primary surgery) and noninfected group (1847 patients with no intervention with a minimum of one year follow-up. The data were analyzed using t, chi-squared, and Fisher's exact tests.
There were significantly more diabetes patients in the infected group compared with the noninfected group (22% versus 9%, p < .001). Infected patients had significantly higher perioperative blood glucose (BG) values: preoperative BG (112 ± 36 versus 105 ± 31 mg/dl, p = .043) and postoperative day (POD) 1 BG (154 ± 37 versus 138 ± 31 mg/dl, p < .001). Postoperative morning hyperglycemia (BG >200 mg/dl) increased the risk for the infection more than two-fold. Non-DM patients were three times more likely to develop the infection if their morning BG was >140 mg/dl on POD 1, p = .001. Male gender, higher body mass index, knee arthroplasty, longer operative time and hospital stay, higher comorbidity index, history of myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and renal insufficiency were also associated with the infection.
Diabetes mellitus and morning postoperative hyperglycemia were predictors for postoperative infection following total joint arthroplasty. Even patients without a diagnosis of DM who developed postoperative hyperglycemia had a significantly increased risk for the infection.
Article: Early postoperative hyperglycaemia is not a risk factor for infectious complications and prolonged in-hospital stay in patients undergoing oesophagectomy: a retrospective analysis of a prospective trial.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Treating hyperglycaemia in hospitalized patients has proven to be beneficial, particularly in those with obstructive vascular disease. In a cohort of patients undergoing resection for oesophageal carcinoma (a group of patients with severe surgical stress but a low prevalence of vascular disease), we investigated whether early postoperative hyperglycaemia is associated with increased incidence of infectious complications and prolonged in-hospital stay. Postoperative glucose values up to 48 hours after surgery were retrieved for 151 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists class I or II who had been previously included in a randomized trial conducted in a tertiary referral hospital. Multivariate regression analysis was used to define the independent contribution of possible risk factors selected by univariate analysis. In univariate regression analysis, postoperative glucose levels were associated with increased length of in-hospital stay (P < 0.001) but not with infectious complications (P = 0.21). However, postoperative glucose concentration was not found to be an independent risk factor for prolonged in-hospital stay in multivariate analysis (P = 0.20). Our data indicate that postoperative hyperglycaemia is more likely to be a risk marker than a risk factor in patients undergoing highly invasive surgery for oesophageal cancer. We hypothesize that patients with a low prevalence of vascular disease may benefit less from intensive insulin therapy.Critical care (London, England) 12/2004; 8(6):R437-42. · 4.61 Impact Factor
Article: Continuous intravenous insulin infusion reduces the incidence of deep sternal wound infection in diabetic patients after cardiac surgical procedures.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for deep sternal wound infection after open heart surgical procedures. We previously showed that elevated postoperative blood glucose levels are a predictor of deep sternal wound infection in diabetic patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that aggressive intravenous pharmacologic control of postoperative blood glucose levels would reduce the incidence of deep sternal wound infection. In a prospective study of 2,467 consecutive diabetic patients who underwent open heart surgical procedures between 1987 and 1997, perioperative blood glucose levels were recorded every 1 to 2 hours. Patients were classified into two sequential groups: the control group included 968 patients treated with sliding-scale-guided intermittent subcutaneous insulin injections (SQI); the study group included 1,499 patients treated with a continuous intravenous insulin infusion in an attempt to maintain a blood glucose level of less than 200 mg/dL. There were no differences between these groups with respect to age, sex, procedure, bypass time, antibiotic prophylaxis, or skin preparation methods. Compared with subcutaneous insulin injections, continuous intravenous insulin infusion induced a significant reduction in perioperative blood glucose levels, which led to a significant reduction in the incidence of deep sternal wound infection in the continuous intravenous insulin infusion group (0.8% [12 of 1,499]) versus the intermittent subcutaneous insulin injection group (2.0% [19 of 968], p = 0.01 by the chi2 test). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that continuous intravenous insulin infusion induced a significant decrease in the risk of deep sternal wound infection (p = 0.005; relative risk, 0.34), whereas obesity (p < 0.03; relative risk, 1.06) and use of an internal thoracic artery pedicle (p = 0.1; relative risk, 2.0) increased the risk of deep sternal wound infection. Use of perioperative continuous intravenous insulin infusion in diabetic patients undergoing open heart surgical procedures significantly reduces major infectious morbidity and its associated socioeconomic costs.The Annals of Thoracic Surgery 02/1999; 67(2):352-60; discussion 360-2. · 3.74 Impact Factor
Article: Relationship of perioperative hyperglycemia and postoperative infections in patients who undergo general and vascular surgery.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Evaluate the association of perioperative hyperglycemia and postoperative infections (POI) in patients who had undergone general surgery. Intensive glucose control leads to less postoperative infections (POI) in critically ill surgical patients, but the relationship of hyperglycemia and POI in a general surgical population remains unknown. A retrospective study of 995 patients who had undergone general and vascular surgery investigated the association of perioperative acute hyperglycemia and risk of 30-day POI over an 18-month period. The primary predictor of interest was postoperative glucose (POG). Bivariate analyses determined the association of each independent variable with POI. Factors significant at P < 0.05 were used in multivariable logistic regression models. In bivariate analyses, preoperative blood glucose (P = 0.012), POG (P = 0.009), age (P = 0.002), diabetes (P = 0.04), American Society of Anesthesia Classification (ASAC) (P < 0.0001), operation length (P = 0.02), and blood transfusions (P = 0.02) were significant predictors of POI. In multivariate analyses, only POG (OR = 1.3, (1.03-1.64)), ASAC (OR = 1.9, (1.31-2.83)), and emergency status (OR = 2.2, (1.21-3.80)) remained significant predictors of POI. Postoperative hyperglycemia increased the risk of POI by 30% with every 40-point increase from normoglycemia (<110 mg/dL). Longer hospitalization was also observed for patients with POG from 110 to 200 mg/dL (OR = 1.4, (1.1-1.7)) and >200 mg/dL (OR = 1.8, (1.4-2.5)). The increased risk of POI and length of hospitalization posed by postoperative hyperglycemia is independent of diabetic status and needs further evaluation to assess for possible benefits of postoperative glycemic control in patients who have undergone general surgery.Annals of surgery 10/2008; 248(4):585-91. · 7.90 Impact Factor