Repeatability of standard metabolic rate, active metabolic rate and aerobic scope in young brown trout during a period of moderate food availability

Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark.
Journal of Experimental Biology (Impact Factor: 2.9). 05/2011; 214(Pt 10):1668-75. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.054205
Source: PubMed


Standard metabolic rate (SMR) and active metabolic rate (AMR) are two fundamental physiological parameters providing the floor and ceiling in aerobic energy metabolism. The total amount of energy available within these two parameters confines constitutes the absolute aerobic scope (AAS). Previous studies on fish have found SMR to closely correlate with dominance and position in the social hierarchy, and to be highly repeatable over time when fish were provided an ad libitum diet. In this study we tested the temporal repeatability of individual SMR, AMR and AAS, as well as repeatability of body mass, in young brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) fed a moderately restricted diet (0.5-0.7% fish mass day⁻¹). Metabolism was estimated from measurements of oxygen consumption rate (M(.)(O₂)) and repeatability was evaluated four times across a 15-week period. Individual body mass was highly repeatable across the entire 15 week experimental period whereas residual body-mass-corrected SMR, AMR and AAS showed a gradual loss of repeatability over time. Individual residual SMR, AMR and AAS were significantly repeatable in the short term (5 weeks), gradually declined across the medium term (10 weeks) and completely disappeared in the long term (15 weeks). We suggest that this gradual decline in repeatability was due to the slightly restricted feeding regime. This is discussed in the context of phenotypic plasticity, natural selection and ecology.

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Available from: Tommy Norin, Jul 06, 2015
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    • "Due to the negative effects of reduced oxygen on cardiorespiratory capacity and energy metabolism, hypoxia impairs the swimming performance of many fish species, leading to profound decreases in the AMR and AS and hence the U crit (Fitzgibbon et al. 2007; Jourdan-Pineau et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2010; Fu et al. 2014). The repeatability of individuals in swimming performance and metabolic capacity has been studied mainly in association with time (Oufiero & Garland 2009; Biro & Stamps 2010; Norin & Malte 2011). The consistency of individual differences across environmental factors, e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated inter-individual variation in metabolism, swimming performance and the relationship between metabolism and swimming performance under normoxic and hypoxic oxygen conditions ([O2]) in juvenile black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus). We measured the standard metabolic rate (SMR), critical swimming speed (Ucrit), active metabolic rate (AMR) and aerobic scope (AS) of 40 fish (body weight, 9.7–11.0 g; body length, 8.4–8.8 cm) at 20 °C under normoxic (100% air saturation) and hypoxic (30% air saturation) conditions. Hypoxia resulted in a significant decrease in all the investigated parameters (p < 0.05). The SMR, Ucrit and AMR exhibited consistent individual differences (repeatability) (p ≤ 0.022), whereas the AS had no consistency across different water [O2] conditions (p = 0.088). The SMR was positively correlated with the Ucrit, AMR and AS (p ≤ 0.002) under normoxic conditions. The SMR was also positively correlated with the Ucrit and AMR under hypoxic conditions (p ≤ 0.003) but there was no correlation between the SMR and AS (p = 0.141). The slope of the correlation between the SMR and Ucrit was shallower under hypoxic conditions than under normoxic conditions (F1,76 = 13.844, p < 0.001), which indicated that the swimming performance decreased more profoundly under hypoxic conditions in individuals with a high SMR.
    Marine and Freshwater Behaviour and Physiology 11/2015; 48(6):431-443. DOI:10.1080/10236244.2015.1090205 · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    • "The standard metabolic rate (SMR) has been reported to be linked with certain fitness traits in animals, but the nature of this relationship is equivocal (Burton and Metcalfe, 2014). In the ''increased intake " hypothesis, the SMR is believed to be positively associated with growth (McCarthy, 2000), reproduction (Sadowska et al., 2013) or survival (Niitepold and Hanski, 2013); conversely, in the ''compensation " hypothesis, it appears to be negatively linked with growth (Norin and Malte, 2011), reproduction or survival (Artacho and Nespolo, 2009). The relationship between SMR and fitness is therefore not straightforwardly positive or negative, but largely dependent on certain conditions the individuals were exposed to. "
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    ABSTRACT: The growth rate of insects may vary in response to shifty environments. They may achieve compensatory growth after a period of food restriction followed by ad libitum food, which may further affect the reproductive performance and lifespan of the resulting phenotypes. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms associated with such growth acceleration in insects. The present study examined the metabolic rate, the antioxidant enzyme activity and the gene expression of adult Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) after experiencing compensatory growth during its larval stages. Starved C. montrouzieri individuals achieved a similar developmental time and adult body mass as those supplied with ad libitum food during their entire larval stage, indicating that compensatory growth occurred as a result of the switch in larval food regime. Further, the compensatory growth was found to exert effects on the physiological functions of C. montrouzieri, in terms of its metabolic rates and enzyme activities. The adults undergoing compensatory growth were characterized by a higher metabolic rate, a lower activity of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase and a lower gene expression of P450 and trehalase. Taken together, the results indicate that although compensatory growth following food restriction in early larval life prevents developmental delay and body mass loss, the resulting adults may encounter physiological challenges affecting their fitness.
    Journal of insect physiology 11/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.jinsphys.2015.11.001 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    • "SMR in individual fish was estimated using two different methods: (1) SMR was estimated as the average of the lowest 10 MO 2 values collected over the 24-h periods (Schurmann and Steffensen 1997; Svendsen et al. 2014). This method to estimate SMR was employed because it provides measurements that are repeatable in individual fish (Norin and Malte 2011); (2) SMR was estimated as the lowest 10th percentile of all MO 2 values collected over the 24-h periods (Killen et al. 2012b). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of seaweed dietary supplementation on measures of fish performance including aerobic metabolism, digestive enzymes activity, innate immune status, oxidative damage, and growth rate using European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Fish were fed for 49 days with three different diets: a control diet (CTRL), a Gracilaria-supplemented diet (GR7.5), and a mixed diet (Mix) composed of Gracilaria, Fucus, and Ulva genera representatives. All diets were isoenergetic (22 kJ g−1 adjusted for dry matter (DM)), isoproteic (47 %DM), and isolipidic (18 %DM) and tested in triplicate groups of 20 fish (initial body weight 25.5 ± 4.1 g). Final results showed similar growth rates and digestive activities between diets. Maximum and standard metabolic rates and aerobic metabolic scope revealed comparable results for the three diets. In contrast, fish fed with GR7.5 exhibited elevated routine metabolic rate (190.7 mg O2 kg−1 h−1). Fish fed with the GR7.5 and Mix diets had lower alternative complement pathway (ACH50) (62.5 and 63 units mL−1 respectively) than CTRL (84 units mL−1) GR7.5 increased lipid peroxidation and cholinesterase levels, as well as glutathione s-transferase activity. Mix diet increased glutathione reductase activity when compared to CTRL. Collectively, our findings suggest that dietary seaweed supplementation may alter seabass metabolic rate, innate immune, and antioxidant responses without compromising growth parameters.
    Journal of Applied Phycology 10/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10811-015-0736-9 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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