Article

β-Adrenergic receptor antagonism prevents anxiety-like behavior and microglial reactivity induced by repeated social defeat.

Division of Oral Biology, Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.
Journal of Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 6.91). 04/2011; 31(17):6277-88. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0450-11.2011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Psychosocial stress is associated with altered immune function and development of psychological disorders including anxiety and depression. Here we show that repeated social defeat in mice increased c-Fos staining in brain regions associated with fear and threat appraisal and promoted anxiety-like behavior in a β-adrenergic receptor-dependent manner. Repeated social defeat also significantly increased the number of CD11b(+)/CD45(high)/Ly6C(high) macrophages that trafficked to the brain. In addition, several inflammatory markers were increased on the surface of microglia (CD14, CD86, and TLR4) and macrophages (CD14 and CD86) after social defeat. Repeated social defeat also increased the presence of deramified microglia in the medial amygdala, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus. Moreover, mRNA analysis of microglia indicated that repeated social defeat increased levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and reduced levels of glucocorticoid responsive genes [glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) and FK506 binding protein-51 (FKBP51)]. The stress-dependent changes in microglia and macrophages were prevented by propranolol, a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Microglia isolated from socially defeated mice and cultured ex vivo produced markedly higher levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide compared with microglia from control mice. Last, repeated social defeat increased c-Fos activation in IL-1 receptor type-1-deficient mice, but did not promote anxiety-like behavior or microglia activation in the absence of functional IL-1 receptor type-1. These findings indicate that repeated social defeat-induced anxiety-like behavior and enhanced reactivity of microglia was dependent on activation of β-adrenergic and IL-1 receptors.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
142 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Repeated social defeat (RSD) in mice causes myeloid cell trafficking to the brain that contributes to the development of prolonged anxiety-like behavior. Myeloid cell recruitment following RSD occurs in regions where neuronal and microglia activation is observed. Thus, we hypothesized that crosstalk between neurons, microglia, and endothelial cells contributes to brain myeloid cell trafficking via chemokine signaling and vascular adhesion molecules. Here we show that social defeat caused an exposure- and brain region-dependent increase in several key adhesion molecules and chemokines involved in the recruitment of myeloid cells. For example, RSD induced distinct patterns of adhesion molecule expression that may explain brain region-dependent myeloid cell trafficking. VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 mRNA expression were increased in an exposure-dependent manner. Furthermore, RSD-induced VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein expression were localized to the vasculature of brain regions implicated in fear and anxiety responses, which spatially corresponded to previously reported patterns of myeloid cell trafficking. Next, mRNA expression of additional adhesion molecules (E- and P-selectin, PECAM-1) and chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL12, CCL2) were determined in the brain. Social defeat induced an exposure-dependent increase in mRNA levels of E-selectin, CXCL1, and CXCL2 that increased with additional days of social defeat. While CXCL12 was unaffected by RSD, CCL2 expression was increased by six days of social defeat. Last, comparison between enriched CD11b(+) cells (microglia/macrophages) and enriched GLAST-1(+)/CD11b(-) cells (astrocytes) revealed RSD increased mRNA expression of IL-1β, CCL2, and CXCL2 in microglia/macrophages but not in astrocytes. Collectively, these data indicate that key mediators of leukocyte recruitment were increased in the brain vasculature following RSD in an exposure- and brain region-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuroscience 10/2014; · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The circadian system regulates many physiological functions including inflammatory responses. For example, mortality caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection varies depending on the time of immunostimulation in mammals. The effects of more subtle challenges on the immune system and cellular mechanisms underlying circadian differences in neuroinflammatory responses are not well understood. Here we show that adult male Sprague-Dawley rats injected with a sub-septic dose of LPS during the light phase displayed elevated sickness behaviors and hippocampal cytokine production compared to rats injected during the dark phase. Microglia are the primary central nervous system (CNS) immune cell type and may mediate diurnal differences in sickness response, thus we explored whether microglia demonstrate temporal variations in inflammatory factors. Hippocampal microglia isolated from adult rats rhythmically expressed inflammatory factors and circadian clock genes. Microglia displayed robust rhythms of TNFα, IL1β and IL6 mRNA, with peak cytokine gene expression occurring during the middle of the light phase. Microglia isolated during the light phase were also more reactive to immune stimulation; such that, ex vivo LPS treatment induced an exaggerated cytokine response in light phase-isolated microglia. Treating microglia with corticosterone ex vivo induced expression of the circadian clock gene Per1. However, microglia isolated from adrenalectomized rats maintained temporal differences in clock and inflammatory gene expression. This suggests circadian clock gene expression in microglia is entrained by, but oscillates in the absence of, glucocorticoids. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that microglia possess a circadian clock that influences inflammatory responses. These results indicate time-of-day is an important factor to consider when planning inflammatory interventions such as surgeries or immunotherapies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Brain Behavior and Immunity 11/2014; · 5.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exposure to stress or traumatic events can lead to the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In addition to the debilitating consequences on mental health, patients with psychiatric disorders also suffer from autonomic imbalance, making them susceptible to a variety of medical disorders. Emerging evidence utilizing spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), a reliable non-invasive measure of cardiovascular autonomic regulation, indicates that patients with depression and various anxiety disorders (i.e., panic, social, generalized anxiety disorders, and post traumatic stress disorder) are characterized by decreased HRV. Social stressors in rodents are ethologically relevant experimental stressors that recapitulate many of the dysfunctional behavioral and physiological changes that occur in psychological disorders. In this review, evidence from clinical studies and preclinical stress models identify putative biomarkers capable of precipitating the comorbidity between disorders of the mind and autonomic dysfunction. Specifically, the role of corticotropin releasing factor, neuropeptide Y and inflammation are investigated. The impetus for this review is to highlight stress-related biomarkers that may prove critical in the development of autonomic imbalance in stress -related psychiatric disorders.
    Frontiers in Psychology 01/2014; 5:950. · 2.80 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
128 Downloads
Available from
Jun 4, 2014