Prostate transglutaminase (TGase-4) antagonizes the anti-tumour action of MDA-7/IL-24 in prostate cancer

Department of Pathology, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Arizona Cancer Center and BIO5 Institute, Tucson, Arizona, AZ 85724-5043 USA.
Journal of Translational Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.99). 04/2011; 9:49. DOI: 10.1186/1479-5876-9-49
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Transglutamiase-4 (TGase-4), also known as prostate transglutaminase, belongs to the TGase family and is uniquely expressed in the prostate gland. The functions of this interesting protein are not clearly defined. In the present study, we have investigated an unexpected link between TGase-4 and the melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (MDA-7/IL-24), a cytokine known to regulate the growth and apoptosis of certain cancer and immune cells.
Frozen sections of normal and malignant human prostate tissues and human prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines PC-3 and CA-HPV-10, cell lines expressing low and high levels of TGase-4, and recombinant MDA-7/IL-24 (rhMDA-7/IL-24) were used. Expression construct for human TGase-4 was generated using a mammalian expression vector with full length human TGase-4 isolated from normal human prostate tissues. PC-3 cells were transfected with expression construct or control plasmid. Stably transfected cells for control transfection and TGase-4 over expression were created. Similarly, expression of TGase-4 in CA-HPV-10 cells were knocked down by way of ribozyme transgenes. Single and double immunofluorescence microscopy was used for localization and co-localization of TGase-4 and MDA-7/IL-24 in PCa tissues and cells with antibodies to TGase-4; MDA-7/IL-24; IL-20alpha; IL-20beta and IL-22R. Cell-matrix adhesion, attachment and migration were by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and growth by in vitro cell growth assay. A panel of small molecule inhibitors, including Akt, was used to determine signal pathways involving TGase-4 and MDA-7/IL-24.
We initially noted that MDA-7 resulted in inhibition of cell adhesion, growth and migration of human PCa PC-3 cells which did not express TGase-4. However, after the cells over-expressed TGase-4 by way of transfection, the TGase-4 expressing cells lost their adhesion, growth and migratory inhibitory response to MDA-7. On the other hand, CA-HPV-10 cells, a cell type naturally expressing high levels of TGase-4, had a contrasting response to MDA-7 when compared with PC-3 cells. Inhibitor to Akt reversed the inhibitory effect of MDA-7, only in PC-3 control cells, but not the TGase-4 expressing PC-3 cells. In human prostate tissues, TGase-4 was found to have a good degree of co-localization with one of the MDA-7 receptor complexes, IL-20Ra.
The presence of TGase-4 has a biological impact on a prostate cancer cell's response to MDA-7. TGase-4, via mechanism(s) yet to be identified, blocked the action of MDA-7 in prostate cancer cells. This has an important implication when considering the use of MDA-7 as a potential anticancer cytokine in prostate cancer therapies.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transglutaminase-4 (TGase-4), also known as the Prostate Transglutaminase, is an enzyme found to be expressed predominately in the prostate gland. The protein has been recently reported to influence the migratory and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of TGase-4 on cell-matrix adhesion and search for the candidate active domain[s] within the protein. Human prostate cancer cell lines and prostate tissues were used. Plasmids that encoded different domains and full length of TGase-4 were constructed and used to generate sublines that expressed different domains. The impact of TGase-4 on in vitro cell-matrix adhesion, cell migration, growth and in vivo growth were investigated. Interactions between TGase-4 and focal adhesion complex proteins were investigated using immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence and phosphospecific antibodies. Results TGase-4 markedly increased cell-matrix adhesion and cellular migration, and resulted in a rapid growth of prostate tumours in vivo. This effect resided in the Core-domain of the TGase-4 protein. TGase-4 was found to co-precipitate and co-localise with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and paxillin, in cells, human prostate tissues and tumour xenografts. FAK small inhibitor was able to block the action medicated by TGase-4 and TGase-4 core domain. TGase-4 is an important regulator of cell-matrix adhesion of prostate cancer cells. This effect is predominately mediated by its core domain and requires the participation of focal adhesion complex proteins.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 10/2013; 11(1):269. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-11-269 · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite intense global efforts, no new clinical and/or viable biomarkers have been established to overcome the limitation of the prostate specific antigen in the early diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa). The current proteomic approaches to PCa biomarker discovery, each have distinct advantages and disadvantages, yet when combined hold real promise in the coming years. One key approach to this effort is the development of non-targeted, depletion-free and quantitative liquid chromatography-ultra high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) pipelines for the systems-wide interrogation of the diverse proteomes encompassed in whole tissue and blood serum or plasma. Derived quantitative proteomes can be decoded for their biomedical relevance with advanced bioinformatics and bibliographic mining to yield promising 'molecular portraits' that can gauge prostatic disease at the serological level. Their functional annotation, although potentially useful, is beyond our current level of biological understanding and should not be requisite for their effective use in the clinical monitoring of prostatic disease.
    Expert Review of Proteomics 08/2013; 10(4):337-54. DOI:10.1586/14789450.2013.827408 · 3.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Transglutaminase 4 has been shown to enhance various biological properties of prostate cancer cells, e.g., cell-matrix adhesion, invasiveness and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between transglutaminase 4 expression and the established features and biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. Transglutaminase 4 immunostaining was performed on a tissue microarray. The expression of transglutaminase 4 was evaluated by a scoring method based on the intensity and extent of staining. The clinical and pathological information was obtained through a review of medical records. Follow-up data were obtained by consulting the hospital medical records and the prostate cancer database of our department and by contacting patients or family members. We then compared the transglutaminase 4 expression levels between the prostate cancer tissues and the paracarcinoma tissues and evaluated the correlation of transglutaminase 4 expression with the clinical parameters and biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. Our results indicated that the transglutaminase 4 staining was significantly higher in tumour tissue than in paracarcinoma tissue (P<0.001) and was positively associated with higher Gleason score (P<0.001) and higher prostate-specific antigen level (P=0.005). Patients with transglutaminase 4 overexpression experienced shorter biochemical recurrence-free survival after surgery (P=0.042) in the univariate analysis but not in the multivariate analysis (P=0.139), which indicated that transglutaminase 4 may serve as a potential predictor of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer.Asian Journal of Andrology advance online publication, 26 August 2013; doi:10.1038/aja.2013.79.
    Asian Journal of Andrology 08/2013; 15(6). DOI:10.1038/aja.2013.79 · 2.53 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
Jun 3, 2014