Immunomodulatory roles of VIP and PACAP in models of multiple sclerosis.
ABSTRACT Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting myelin and axons, which is perpetuated by autoreactive lymphocytes and other inflammatory cell types. Because of the multifactorial nature of this disease, therapies targeting a single process may not be sufficient to halt its progression. VIP and PACAP are two neuropeptides shown to regulate multiple aspects of innate and adaptive immunity, and can also act independently on neural cells to promote their survival and regeneration. Animal studies have proven the efficacy of these peptides for the treatment of several models of neural inflammatory disorders, including those which, like MS, have major Th1/Th17 components. In this review, the immunomodulatory actions of VIP and PACAP will be discussed, with particular emphasis on their potential significance in MS.
SourceAvailable from: Javier Leceta[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Suitable biomarkers are essential for the design of therapeutic strategies in personalized medicine. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has demonstrated immunomodulatory properties in autoimmune murine and ex vivo human models. Our aim was to study serum levels of VIP during the follow-up of an early arthritis (EA) cohort and to analyze its value as a biomarker predicting severity and therapeutic requirements. Data from 91 patients on an EA register were analyzed (76% rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 24% undifferentiated arthritis, 73% women, and median age 54 years; median disease duration at entry, 5.4 months). We collected per protocol sociodemographic, clinical, and therapeutic data. VIP levels were determined by enzyme immunoassay in sera harvested from the 91 patients (353 visits; 3.9 visit/patient) and from 100 healthy controls. VIP values below the 25(th) percentile of those assessed in healthy population were considered low. To determine the effect of independent variables on VIP levels, we performed a longitudinal multivariate analysis nested by patient and visit. A multivariate ordered logistic regression was modeled to determine the effect of low VIP serum levels on disease activity at the end of follow-up. VIP concentrations varied considerably across EA patients. Those fulfilling the criteria for RA had the lowest values in the whole sample, although no significant differences were observed compared with healthy donors. Disease activity, which was assessed using DAS28, inversely correlated with VIP levels. After a two-year follow-up, those patients with low baseline levels of VIP displayed higher disease activity and received more intensive treatment. Patients who are unable to up-regulate VIP seem to have a worse clinical course despite receiving more intense treatment. Therefore, measurement of VIP levels may be suitable as a prognostic biomarker.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85248. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0085248 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The action of PACAP-38 was studied by measuring the anxiogenic-anxiolytic behavior of rats in an elevated plus maze. PACAP-38 was administered into the lateral brain ventricle and the behavior of the animals was measured 3 h later. The possible involvement of transmitters was measured by pretreating the animals with receptor blockers which alone did not influence the task, but in the doses used were effective with other neuropeptides. The receptor antagonist PACAP 6-38 (a PAC 1/VPAC2 receptor antagonist of PACAP-38 receptor), haloperidol (a non-selective dopamine receptor antagonist), phenoxybenzamine (an α1/α2β-adrenergic receptor antagonist), propranolol(a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist), bicuculline (a gamma-aminobutyric acid subunit A receptor antagonist), methysergide (a nonselective 5-HT2 serotonergic receptor antagonist), atropine (a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist), naloxone (a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist) and nitro-l-arginine which acts by blocking the enzyme nitric oxide synthase, thereby blocking the nitric oxide synthesis, were tested. The following parameters were measured: the time spent in open arms/the time spent in total entries. PACAP-38 decreased the ratio of time spent in open arms to the time spent in total entries, indicating anxiogenic action. The total number of entries was not altered significantly either by PACAP-38 or by the receptor blockers. The following receptor blockers diminished the action of PACAP-38: PACAP 6-38,haloperidol, methysergide, naloxone and nitro-l-arginine. Pretreatment with atropine, phenoxybenzamine, propranolol and bicuculline did not influence the action of PACAP-38 on the time spent in open arms.Behavioural Brain Research 12/2014; 281. DOI:10.1016/j.bbr.2014.12.039 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuroinflammatory disease of the central nervous system that leads to demyelination and neurodegeneration. VIP and PACAP are structurally related neuropeptides with neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activities. To evaluate VIP and PACAP-38 in plasma and CSF in humans in correlation with IL-6, IL-10 and TNFα, we compared 20 MS individuals with 27 healthy controls. In MS, a decrease in PACAP-38 in CSF and a decrease in plasma IL-6 concentration were seen. A positive correlation between plasma VIP and plasma IL-6 was identified. We conclude that VIP and PACAP may influence the course of MS.Journal of neuroimmunology 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jneuroim.2013.08.012 · 2.79 Impact Factor