Cancer genome variation in children, adolescents, and young adults

Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Cancer (Impact Factor: 4.89). 05/2011; 117(10 Suppl):2262-7. DOI: 10.1002/cncr.26049
Source: PubMed


This mini-review describes the rapid changes in genome technologies that are leading to comprehensive views of genetic alterations in cancer, and presents high-level thoughts on ways to accelerate translation into clinical medicine. Issues that are more relevant to children, adolescents, and young adult patients with cancer are highlighted.

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    • "This is due to the ability of cancerous cells to proliferate rapidly, resist apoptosis, evade the immune system, and metastasize to new regions within the body. Despite the identification of over 30 tumor suppressor genes and 100 oncogenes within the human genome, it is yet to be determined how mutations of these genes contribute to the initiation and metastasis of various cancer types (Hudson, 2011). Recent studies utilizing next generation sequencing technologies complicated this matter further when it was shown that many cancer patients did not harbor mutations in these protein-coding genes (Hudson, 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: The recent discovery of thousands of long non-coding (lnc)RNAs in the human genome has prompted investigation of the potential roles of these molecules in human biology and medicine. Indeed, it is now well documented that many lncRNAs are involved in key biological processes, including dosage compensation, genomic imprinting, chromatin regulation, alternative splicing of pre-mRNA, nuclear organization; and potentially many other biological processes, which are yet to be elucidated. Recently, a number of studies have also reported that lncRNAs are dysregulated in a number of human diseases, including several cancers and neurological disorders. Although many of these studies have fallen short of implicating lncRNAs as causative, they suggest potential roles that warrant further in depth investigations. In this review, we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the roles of lncRNAs in cancer and neurological disorders, and suggest potential future directions in this rapidly emerging field.
    Frontiers in Genetics 02/2012; 3:25. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2012.00025
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    ABSTRACT: The Canadian National Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Task Force (NTF) held its second international workshop in Toronto during March 2012. The workshop's theme, "Moving to Action," focused on implementing the NTF's recommendations, published previously in the Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology. Here we provide a review of the NTF's process of engagement and actions in order to advocate for and implement a change process in the care of AYA patients in Canada. The highlights of the second international workshop and components of the resulting "Framework for Action" are reported.
    06/2013; 2(2):72-76. DOI:10.1089/jayao.2012.0034
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    ABSTRACT: Long noncoding RNAs are becoming increasingly appreciated as major players in gene regulation. They have been reported to play diverse roles in many biological processes. Here, we discuss their discovery, features, and known functions in cells. While not comprehensive, this chapter should serve to illustrate the power and promise of studying long noncoding RNAs.
    Methods in Molecular Biology 01/2015; 1206:1-14. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4939-1369-5_1 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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