Article

FatJ acts via the Hippo mediator Yap1 to restrict the size of neural progenitor cell pools

MRC Centre for Developmental and Biomedical Genetics, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S10 2TN, UK.
Development (Impact Factor: 6.27). 05/2011; 138(10):1893-902. DOI: 10.1242/dev.064204
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The size, composition and functioning of the spinal cord is likely to depend on appropriate numbers of progenitor and differentiated cells of a particular class, but little is known about how cell numbers are controlled in specific cell cohorts along the dorsoventral axis of the neural tube. Here, we show that FatJ cadherin, identified in a large-scale RNA interference (RNAi) screen of cadherin genes expressed in the neural tube, is localised to progenitors in intermediate regions of the neural tube. Loss of function of FatJ promotes an increase in dp4-vp1 progenitors and a concomitant increase in differentiated Lim1(+)/Lim2(+) neurons. Our studies reveal that FatJ mediates its action via the Hippo pathway mediator Yap1: loss of downstream Hippo components can rescue the defect caused by loss of FatJ. Together, our data demonstrate that RNAi screens are feasible in the chick embryonic neural tube, and show that FatJ acts through the Hippo pathway to regulate cell numbers in specific subsets of neural progenitor pools and their differentiated progeny.

0 Followers
 · 
122 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Stem cells and progenitor cells are the cells of origin for multi-cellular organisms and organs. They play key roles during development and their dysregulation gives rise to human diseases such as cancer. The recent development of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology which converts somatic cells to stem-like cells holds great promise for regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, the understanding of proliferation, differentiation, and self-renewal of stem cells and organ-specific progenitor cells is far from clear. Recently, the Hippo pathway was demonstrated to play important roles in these processes. The Hippo pathway is a newly established signaling pathway with critical functions in limiting organ size and suppressing tumorigenesis. This pathway was first found to inhibit cell proliferation and promote apoptosis, therefore regulating cell number and organ size in both Drosophila and mammals. However, in several organs, disturbance of the pathway leads to specific expansion of the progenitor cell compartment and manipulation of the pathway in embryonic stem cells strongly affects their self-renewal and differentiation. In this review, we summarize current observations on roles of the Hippo pathway in different types of stem cells and discuss how these findings changed our view on the Hippo pathway in organ development and tumorigenesis.
    Protein & Cell 04/2012; 3(4):291-304. DOI:10.1007/s13238-012-2919-3 · 2.85 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many of the regulatory mechanisms controlling neural stem cell behavior are proving to be conserved between organisms as diverse as worms and man. Common principles are emerging with respect to the regulation of neural stem cell division and the specification of distinct stem and progenitor cell types. Great progress has been made in recent years in identifying the cellular mechanisms underpinning these processes, thanks in large part to the cross-fertilization of research on different model systems. We review here recent findings that highlight hitherto unappreciated similarities in the cell and molecular biology of neural stem cell self-renewal and differentiation between invertebrates and vertebrates. As well as underscoring the possible conservation of stem cell mechanisms across phyla, these similarities are proving to be practically useful in studying neural stem cell biology in health and disease.
    Neuron 05/2011; 70(4):719-29. DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2011.05.016 · 15.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Regulated proliferation and cell cycle exit are essential aspects of neurogenesis. The Yap transcriptional coactivator controls proliferation in a variety of tissues during development, and this activity is negatively regulated by kinases in the Hippo signaling pathway. We find that Yap is expressed in mitotic mouse retinal progenitors and it is downregulated during neuronal differentiation. Forced expression of Yap prolongs proliferation in the postnatal mouse retina, whereas inhibition of Yap by RNA interference (RNAi) decreases proliferation and increases differentiation. We show Yap is subject to post-translational inhibition in the retina, and also downregulated at the level of mRNA expression. Using a cell culture model, we find that expression of the proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors Neurog2 or Ascl1 downregulates Yap mRNA levels, and simultaneously inhibits Yap protein via activation of the Lats1 and/or Lats2 kinases. Conversely, overexpression of Yap prevents proneural bHLH proteins from initiating cell cycle exit. We propose that mutual inhibition between proneural bHLH proteins and Yap is an important regulator of proliferation and cell cycle exit during mammalian neurogenesis.
    Developmental Biology 01/2012; 361(1):103-15. DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2011.10.017 · 3.64 Impact Factor