Protection from diabetes development by single-chain antibody-mediated delivery of a NF-κB inhibitor specifically to β-cells in vivo.
ABSTRACT Recently, we reported the generation of single-chain antibodies (SCAs) highly specific for rodent and human β-cells. Our current report describes the generation of a fusion protein of one of these SCAs (SCA B1) with a NF-κB essential modifier (NEMO)-binding domain (NBD) peptide, thereby creating a selective inhibitor of NF-κB activation in β-cells. The SCA B1-NBD fusion protein was cloned in the pIRES-EGFP, expressed in bacteria, and purified by metal affinity chromatography; the newly generated complex was then administered intravenously to rodents and evaluated for its ability to protect β-cells against cytokines in vitro and diabetogenic agents in vivo. First, it was shown clearly that our SCA B1-NBD fusion protein binds highly selective to CD rat β-cells in vivo. Second, we observed that SCA B1-mediated in vivo delivery of the NBD peptide completely blocked IL-1β + IFNγ- and TNFα + IFNγ-mediated induction of NF-κB as well as islet dysfunction in culture. Finally, repeated intravenous injection of SCA B1-NBD prior to multiple low-dose administration of streptozotocin in CD mice not only induced a striking resistance to diabetes development but also preserved β-cell mass. In conclusion, our data show for the first time that a SCA B1-NBD fusion peptide reliably protects β-cells against cytokines in vitro and allows protection from diabetes development in CD mice in vivo.
- SourceAvailable from: Matthias Hardtke-Wolenski[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of a novel targeted contrast agent (CA) for the in vivo visualization of single native pancreatic islets, the sites of insulin production, in the pancreas of mice using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The CA for intravenous administration was composed of the β-cell-specific single-chain antibody fragment, SCA B1, and ferromagnetic carbon-coated cobalt nanoparticles. MRI experiments were performed at 7, 9.4 and 16.4 T in excised organs (pancreas, liver, kidney, spleen), at 7 T in mice fixed in formalin and at 9.4 and 16.4 T in living mice. Image contrast in untreated control animals was compared with images from mice treated with unspecific and specific CA. For the validation of MRI results, selected pancreases were subjected to immunohistochemical staining and numerical contrast simulations were performed. Ex vivo results and the outcome of immunohistochemistry suggest that islets are marked only by the CA containing SCA B1. Strong accumulation of particles was found also in other investigated organs owing to the uptake by the reticuloendothelial system, but the contrast in the MR images is clearly distinguishable from the islet specific contrast in pancreases and numerical predictions. In vivo experiments based on averaged dynamic sampling with 66 × 66 × 100 µm(3) and triggered acquisition with 90 × 90 × 200 µm(3) nominal resolution resulted in similar particle contrast to in in vitro measurements. The newly developed CA and MRI strategies have the potential to be used for studying mouse diabetes models by visualizing single native pancreatic islets. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging 11/2013; 8(6):495-504. · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multi-factorial, organ-specific autoimmune disease in genetically susceptible individuals, which is characterized by a selective and progressive loss of insulin-producing β-cells. Cells mediating innate as well as adaptive immunity infiltrate pancreatic islets, thereby generating an aberrant inflammatory process called insulitis that can be mirrored by a pathologic autoantibody production and autoreactive T-cells. In tight cooperation with infiltrating innate immune cells, which secrete high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β, TNFα, and INFγ effector T-cells trigger the fatal destruction process of β-cells. There is ongoing discussion on the contribution of inflammation in T1D pathogenesis, ranging from a bystander reaction of autoimmunity to a dysregulation of immune responses that initiate inflammatory processes and thereby actively promoting β-cell death. Here, we review recent advances in anti-inflammatory interventions in T1D animal models and preclinical studies and discuss their mode of action as well as their capacity to interfere with T1D development.Current Diabetes Reports 07/2012; 12(5):499-509. · 3.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In vivo phage display is a high-throughput method for identifying target ligands specific for different vascular beds. Targeting is possible due to the heterogeneous expression of receptors and other antigens in a particular vascular bed. Such expression is additionally influenced by the physiological or pathological status of the vasculature. In vivo phage display represents a technique that is usable in both, vascular mapping and targeted drug development. In this review, several important methodological aspects of In vivo phage display experiments are discussed. These include choosing an appropriate phage library, an appropriate animal model and the route of phage library administration. In addition, peptides or antibodies identified by in vivo phage display homing to specific types of vascular beds, including the altered vasculature present in several types of diseases are summarized. Still, confirmation in independent experiments and reproduction of identified sequences are needed for enhancing the clinical applicability of in vivo phage display research.Biotechnology advances 04/2013; · 8.25 Impact Factor